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65 Cards in this Set

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TERM
Define Function:
to perform ADLS in ones env and to accuratley percieve and interact with the environment
TERM
Define Dysfunction:
to not be able to live like one wants; having impairments in ADL independence
TERM
Primary Aging:
Normal Aging determined by ones genetic makeup, and that function is not considered impaired
What is CUPID
An acronym that gives us the criteria to determine PRIMARY AGING
What does the acronym CUPID stand for?
Cummulative
Universal
Progressive
Intrinsic
Deleterious (harmful effects)
TERM
Defind SECONDARY AGING:
Abnormal changes, caused by disease process. There is impairment or dysfunction
What is the 1% rule
that at the age of 30 we start losing 1% of function per year.
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
COGNITION:
crystallized vs fluid intelligence, which declines quicker? what type of aging is this?
crystallized declines quicker- This is PRIMARY AGING
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
COGNITION:
Decline typically occurs...? what type of aging is this?
PRIMARY AGING it is gradual, ability-specific, selective, and/or global- NOT catastrophically
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
COGNITION:
What is catastrophic decline, and what type of aging is it?
Sudden memory loss due to illness, meds, poor nutrition, neurological infarcts. This is SECONDARY aging
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
SKIN:
What are PRIMARY aging chgs?
*Decreased blood supply, elasticity and resillience of collagen
*Atrophy of subcutaneous layer (loss of fat)
*Hormonal changes
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
SKIN:
What is the result of decreased blood supply...?
wrinkles
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
SKIN:
What is the result of Atrophy of the subcutaneous layer?
-hard to regulate body temp
-thin face, sunken eyes
-bruise, blotches, spots
-reddened tongue
-shrinkage of gums
-thinner, finer hair
-sparse patterns of hair growth
-slow-growing & brittle nails
-decreased ability to sweat
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
SKIN:
What is the result of hormonal changes?
loss of body hair for men and increased facial hair for women
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
SKIN:
What causes SECONDARY aging?
exposure to the sun: damages elastic fibers, cause wrinkled, dried, and tough skin textures
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Cardiovascular System:
What are the 2 major PRIMARY aging changes?
Stuctural and Functional changes
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Cardiovascular System:
What are Structural changes?
*Heart is stiffer/less elastic causing thickened heart valves (Make heart contraction difficult)
*Heart becomes fattier: mass and volume increase (possible artherosclerosis)
*Arteries calcify and lose elasticity (reduced stress response to activities)
*ventricles become thickened, fibrous (result in arrhythmias)
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Cardiovascular System:
What are the Functional changes
*Decr max heart rate
*decr cardiac contraction
*decr vol of blood pumped
*decr in cardiac output at rest
*reduced blood supply to org
*reduced supply of oxblood (causing fatigue)
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Cardiovascular System:
What is the SECONDARY aging change?
Atheroscelosis (common form of arteriosclerosis): causes HTN, MI CHF, TIA's
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Skeletal System:
What are the PRIMARY aging changes?
*Reduced height
*Stiff joints, decr spinal mobility
*Decr bone mass
At what age does bone mass peak and at what rate does it erode?
40; 5%/year
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Skeletal System:
What are the SECONDARY aging changes?
Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis
What is the incidence of osteoporosis for women/men?
Women: 50% over 65
Men: 20% over 70
What are the influencing factors of bone mass?
*gender
*diet (lo calcium, hi alcohol/caffeine)
*activity (insufficient wt bearing)
*smoking
*estrogen deficiency
What is osteoarthritis?
deformed/unstable joints
Why does osteoarthritis result?
from worn cartilage and weak ligaments.
What can occur because of osteoarthritis?
subluxation or fusion of a joint
When osteoarthritis extends to weight bearing joints, what happens?
It becomes leading cause for physical disablity (more than coronary artery disease)
What is the incidence of osteoarthritis in those over >65
50% will have impairments
What are the interventions for osteoarthritis?
-strengthening ex
-anti-inflammatory/pain meds
-modalities
(in acute no heat)
-AE
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Muscular System:
What is the PRIMARY aging change?
MS mass declines from 43% (normal) to 25%
What are the results of MS mass decline
*reduced strength
*shorter-than-avg step length
*wider walking base
*slower reaction time
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Muscular System:
When does SECONDARY aging changes occur?
Occurs during any acute illness that restricts mobility
At what rate is MS mass & strength reduced when immobilized (in bed)?
5% DAILY!
For each day of bed rest, ________reconditionig is necessary.
2 WEEKS! for EACH DAY of bed rest
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What is the PRIMARY aging change?
Loss in frontal, temporal occipital& parietal lobe
cerebellum
hippcampus
decline in brain weight by 5% to 17%
thickening of dura mater
excessive cerebrospinal fluid
Size reduction in brain stem & spinal cord
Loss of gray matter
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What is the result of frontal lobe loss?
cognition, personality changes
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What is the result of temporal lobe loss?
speech, hearing
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What is the result of occipital lobe loss?
vision, up to 50% loss
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What is the result of parietal lobe loss?
sensory loss up to 33%
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What is the result cereballum loss?
balance, coordination
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What is the result of hippocampus loss?
memory function
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What are the SECONDARY AGING changes?
-Alzheimers
-Parkinsons
-Dementia
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
What is the prevalence and incidence of Alzheimers?
4th leading cause of death in the US
3% of 65-74 yr olds get it
18% of 74-84 yr olds get it
47% of >85 yr olds get it
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Neurological System:
How does Parkinson's rank as a degenerateive disease?
2nd most common
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Sensory System:
What are the affects on gustatory?
-decr salivation (dry mouth)
-decr ability to taste salt and sweets (50% loss of taste buds)
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Sensory System:
What are the affects on olfactory?
Decr sensitivity to smell (40%)
Why is olfactory so important to health and/or well being?
lack of smell reduces desire to eat
and ability to smell poison gas leaks or other toxic inhalants
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Sensory System:
What are the affects on Tactile?
Reduced tactie sensation in fingetips, palms and LE
Why is tactile sensory important to health and well being?
to be able to feel cold, heat, deep pain and position (proprioception)
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Sensory System:
What are the affects on kinesthetic?
decline in perceiving chg in body position and orientation
why is it important to perceive body position or orientation?
to prevent falls
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Sensory System:
What are PRIMARY CHGS in vision?
-decr elasticity in the lens begins
-Lens clouding
-Night vision difficult
-decr visual acuity
-sensitive to glare
At what age does the decrease elasticity in the lens begin?
40, but nealy eveyone >65
What age group is affected the most by lens clouding?
95% of >65 yr olds
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Sensory System:
What is a SECONDARY CHG on vision?
Cataracts (controversial if this is a primary that is an exaggerated normal aging chg, or precipitated by unprotected exposure
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Sensory System:
What are prevalences and incidences of Hearing changes?
-3rd most common chronic condition
-affects men more than women
-affects 33% of all 65-74 yr olds
-affects 75% of 75-79 yr olds
SPECIFIC CHANGES:
Sensory System:
What are the results of hearing chgs?
-Impaired discrimination
-impaired hi frequency
-impaired tone threshold
-decr socialization/depression
What does Impaired discrimination result in?
difficulty in word discrimination, may need to lip read
What does impaired hi frequency result in?
difficulty hearing in noisy places
What does impaired hi tone threshold result in?
Can't hear hi frequency speech, especially consonant sounds
Primary changes:
Respiratory system:
What are the respiratory primary changes?
resp infections
decreases ox supply
Respiratory System:
What are the 4 reasons for decreased oxy supply
1 calcification of rib cartilage
2 decline in lung tissue elasticity
3 dexline in the elasticity
of MS that support the lungs
4 reduced # of cilia
REspiratory System:
What is a reason forresp infections occur?
decline in body fluid composition, which affects the body's moist mucus membranes (elder have 50% vs 80% at birth)
What are the Secondary Aging changes in Respiratory Sys?
1 Inf caused from environmental pollutants (can cause COPD)
2 The reshaping of the thorax and reduced lung expansion due to osteoporosis and kyphosis
3 Due to poor chest MS strength, ineffective coughs can cause pneumonia and chronic bronchitis