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43 Cards in this Set

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Listening
type of communication engaged in the most
5 Stages of Listening
Recieving, Understanding, Remembering, Evaluating, Responding
Recieving
recieve info, selective listening, register tinformation
Understanding
relate new info to already known things; the person speaking; ask for clarification/more details
Remembering
Subjective, memory inceares as # of exposures do, you forget 50% of info right afterwards
Evaluating
judging message and speakers intentions
Responding
Verbal and non-verbal feedback given
Active listening
making an effort to listen to speaker in various circumstances (when sad, upset, etc)
Steps of active listening
Paraphrase, Express understanding, ask questions
Paraphrase
speaker reiterates meaning, in their own words, their interpretation
Express Understanding
echo speakers feelings
Ask Questions
ensure own understanding and secure additional info.
Communication Styles
Nonassertiveness, Indirect Comm, Assertiveness, Passive Aggressive, Aggressiveness
Nonassertiveness
lack of assertiveness, fail to assert their rights, sometimes ask if they can do what is rightfully theirs, you win I lose philosophy, more concerned about others will being than their own
Indirect Communication
Convey message in an indirect, roundabout way, involves more initiative than nonassertiveness, very unclear, good if othe rparty is hostile,not very effective, MOST COMMON WAY WE MAKE REQUESTS
Assertiveness
act in our own best interest without infiringing on the rights of others, creates an enviornment where both parties can get what they need, i win you win philosophy, allows others to be assertive, assertive people are open; nonanxious usually and willing to stand and argue, not easily intimidated or persuaded
Passive Aggressiveness
"back door" agression, can't or won't be directly aggressive, obscure expression of hostility, subtle, making people feel guilty; sarcasm; and withholding from others are examples, can come from nonassertiveness
Agressiveness (direct)
can be situational or general, intentional, think little of other people and a lot about self, don't like to be criticized but criticizes others, frequent conflicts, very attached to being right
Communication Climate
the emotional tone of the relationship; how much we value and respect the other party, EVERY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTES TO CLIMATE
Messages
tone of message affects climate
Tones of Messages
Confirming, Rejection/Disagreement, Disconfirming
Confirming (positive spiral)
recognition, acknowledgement, endorsement (agree)
Disconfirming (negative spiral)
ignoring, interruptions, attacking, impersonal response
Rejection/Disagreement (middle, uncertain, partial negative)
Argumentation,
Complaining, Agressiveness
Argumentation
present and defend stance on an issue while attacking others IDEAS
Complaining
lack of arguement but still want to voice opinion (peoples behavior, others personal characteristics, etc)
Aggressiveness
tendency to attack the self concept of others to inflict psycological pain, yelling, linked to physical violence, sarcasm,
Nonverbal Communication
those messages expressed by other than linguistic means, and messages expressed by vocal means that dont incolve language
Types of Nonverbal Communication
Enviornmental cues, proxemics, kinesics, haptics, appearance, paralanguage/linguistics
Enviornmental Cues
enviornment speaks to overall communication process, enviornment suggests how to behave or feel
Proxemics
Use of space in communication process
Intimate distance
touch to 18 inches; people be like and care about, doctors, dentist, etc
Personal Distance
18 inches to 4 feet, friends, classmates, parties, social
Social Distance
4 feet to 12 feet, social roles, strangers, salespeople, business
Public Distance
12 feet plus, one way communication
Kinesics
body movement and gestures; facial expressions, eye contact, hand movements, body orientation, posture
Facial Expressions
emotion, masking of emotions
Eye contact
women maintain more than men, men ae usually speaker
Body Orientation
Shoulder position indicates interest
Posture
indicates emotional state
Haptics
study of touch; US culure is no touch culture, touch decreases with age, children don't follow touch rules, touch is asociated with good health, female children are touched more than male children
Appearance
accessories, artifacts (things we own), clothing; TRUSTWORTHYNESS, SOCIAL POSITION, INCOME, LEVEL OF SUCCESS, EDUCATION, AND MORAL CHARACTER ARE ALL JUDGED BASED ON APPEARANCE AND HOW ONE DRESSES
Paralanguage/Linguistics
volume, pitch, rate, emphasis, silence, tone, articulation, laughter, sighs; ALL CHANGE MESSAGE