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37 Cards in this Set

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cross-sectional designs
different ages interviewed at one time
longitudinal designs
one group, interviewed over time at different times in life
time-lag designs
different people interviewed at the same age over time
sequential designs
combination of others, interviewing people of different ages at certain different periods in time
naturalistic observation
watching someone - time consuming, only one behavior, opportunity for bias
self-report/interview/survey
Saves time and money, but people can lie - may be confused if questions are unclear
experiment
a test, trying to measure something
case study
one person studied in a very detailed manner
organismic model
European - nature based - includes psychosocial, psychoanalytic theories -post WW2, due to advances in medicine, biology, genetics
id
biological drive (unconcious)
ego
reality
superego
conscience, morality
Freud's Stages
Oral, angal, phallic, latency, genital
Erikson's stages
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Doubt/Shame
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Self-Absorption
Integrity vs. Despair
crisis
turning point, pass/fail determines development
schema
nature of mental structures and changes
Piaget's Stages
Sensory motor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
Contemporary theories
neurobiological theory, psychophysiological, contextual, attachment
baby boom
79 million born after WWII - 1/3 of the US population, largest genration in history
population pyramid
largest group is youngest
mechanistic model
individual is a passive recipient of environmental influence - all behavior thought learned - tabula rasa - Watson, Skinner
contextual model
Product of complex interaction between nurture/nature - method limitation, lack of scientific objectivity - relevant for specific setting (culture, race, religion)
psychosocial
life span theory, ego identity, social aspects - diffcult to test, abstract, lack of empirical evidence
attachment
internal working model of attachment relationships
information processing theory
humans are computers
Brofenbrenner
Ecological system theory - microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem
self-concept
knowledge about self - cognition - what self is like - self-schema
self-esteem
components of self - feelings about self - someone else contributes - feeling, opinion, evaluation
self-efficacy
whether one has ability to complete or accomplish a task - "I think I can" - "success breeds success"
identity
Who am I? What do I believe? Where am I going? Decision making for adulthood
4 variables which affect self
Gender, Age, Culture, Race/Ethinicity
Skinner
Reinforcement
Bandura
Modeling
microsystem
innermost level, immediate settings
mesosystem
relationships between settings - home, school, work, etc.
exosystem
settings not actively participated in - media, child's school, school board meetings
macrosystem
widely shaerd values, beliefs, customs, laws