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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Varicose veins
legs, rectum, esophagus...
valves in veins become incompetent, bld pools instead of go to Hrt., prevent with support sockings and avoid standing for long time, wght loss, Tx=leg vein ligation or vein stripping (surgeries)
Myocarditis
inflammation of the middle layer of the hrt; can be cause by viral infection; Tx same as endocarditis
Pacemakers
battery operated device to restore a more effective cardiac rhythm, tempary (external) or permanent (interserted, anesthesia before)
Myocardial infarction (MI)
-blockage or obstruction in a coronary artery
-will have angina, SOB, hypotension
-use of meds, thrombolytics such as TPA and Streptokinase, and morphine
Beurgers disease (thromboangitis obliterans)
inflammation of bld vessels associated with bld clot formation and fibrosis of the vessel wall, spasm and constriction, cyanosis; Tx w/ exercise, antibiotics, surgery
Homans sign
Pain with dorsiflextion of the foot, positive if have a DVT
Right-sided CHF
Peripheral symptoms; wght gain, nausea, vomiting, peripheral edema, ascites, oliguria and polyguria
Ischemia
a deficiency of bld supply to an area
Cardioversion
electrical stimulus that discharges from paddles when equipmnt senses R wave, similar to Defibillation, but lower energy levels; anticoagulants before;NPO; digoxin/diuretics held 24-72 hr prior
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
surgery that bypasses blocked arteries
Treatment for CHF
treat underlying cause; reduce pain, Na restrictions, weigh daily, educate, meds=diuretics, digoxin;
Aneurysm
stretching or bulging of an artery wall due to the loss of elasticity, symptoms depend on the location of the aneursym
Cardiac Arrest
Absence of pulse and loss of output, can be preceded by PVC's, may be flat line on monitor (asystole);may be chaotic ventricular rhythm that lacks a pattern
Angina
chest pain from decrease of oxygen or bld to the hrt (ischemia)
Left sided CHF
Lungs and respiratory; fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, orthopnea, anxiety, crackles, wheezes, cyanosis, cough
systole
contraction
Arrythmias/Dysrythmias
conduction disorder that includes a dangerous hrt rate, atypical rhythm or both; minor or life threatening
flow of bld and contraction of ventricles
atria contracts-ventricle fill with bld-ventricle contracts and atria relaxes
Congestive Hrt Failure (CHF)
accumlation of bld and fluids w/in organs and tissues due to impaired circulation;Rght or LFT side of hrt affected, symptoms differ
Rheumatic fever/hrt disease
Hrt=complications of infections, usually grp A strep
Fever=many systems, hrt jnts nervous
The hrt if the major organ effected
Atrial fibrillation
chaotic, disorganized atrial activity; atria quiver instead of contract; can be chronic;can lead to hrt failure(CHF) Tx w/ meds=digoxin or Lanoxin, also diuretics;may need cardioversion
Diagnosis of MI
ECG/EKG or cardiac US; also cardiac enzymes assist with diagnosis...CK-MB(specific cardiac muscle) and troponin
Oliguria
Low urine output
Thrombophlebitis (DVT)
thrombus in the vein; sysmptoms=positive Homans sign, heat, redness; may need surgery(thrombectomy or Greenfield filter); use of anticoagulants, Heprin and Coumadin
Venous Stasis Ulcers
result from chronic venous insufficiency, lower extremitites discolored and skin harden; Tx=stockings/wraps, bedrest and elevation, use of meds
Felt as the peripheral pulse
the contraction of the left ventricle
Polyguria
Increase urin output
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
catheter inserted into femoral or brachial artery and advanced to area in hrt where plaque is, balloon inflated to widen the artery...use with Coronary arterty disease
endarterectomy
resection of the lining of an artery
Stroke volume
amount of bld pumped with each contraction
Acute Pulmonary Edema
excessive amount of fluid in the pulmonary intersitial spaces or in the alveoli; crackles, cold and clammy, Tx= high fowlers position, O2 @ 6 liters/min unless COPD, meds, strict I&O
Atherosclerosis
deposits of plaque in the arteries (cholesterol)
Sinus Bradycardia
rhythm regular but rate is slow, <60; Tx= meds or pacemaker surgery; normal in athletes or well conditioned people
dystole
relaxation
Heart Block
varying degress..1,2,3,4 or complete; prob with conduction through AV node; on EKG P waves have no relation to QRS complex; can cause Hypotension or syncope
Pericarditis
inflammation of the outer layer of the hrt; cause cardiac tamponade; Tx with antibiotics, rest, may need to drain fluid
Embolectomy/thrombectomy
removal of a emboli or thrombus, surgery
IPG
a diagnosis to test for DVT, a sensor to look at bld volume in the area
Raynauds disease
periodic constriction of the arteries that supply the extremities; idiopathic; arterial spasms cause ischemia or necrosis to tissues; Tx w/avoid cold temp & smoking, surgery, drug therapy
arteriosclerosis
thickening and hardening of the arteries
Mitral valves prolapse
mitral valve enlarges, becomes floppy and bulges into the atrium; Tx w/ meds or valve replacement...***use antibiotics before invasive procedures and anticoagulants after
Tx of HTN
-bedrest
-antibiotics, PCN
-NSADS or aspirin
-surgery, valve replacement
Stenosis
means narrowing...of Hrt valves can produce many symptoms, manage with meds to prevent clots
Cardiac catheterization
measuring the fluid pressure with in the chambers of the hrt, a fluttering sensation
Vascular Grafts
Surgery, Tx, Replacements...
meds=use of nitro(patch form), vasodilator
post op care=pain control, monitor I&O, VS, check peripheral pulses, neuro assessments
Diagnosis of HTN
presence of C-reactive protein, elevated sed rate and ECG/EKG changes
Sinus Tachycardia
rhythm is regular but faster than normal, >100; cause from strenous exercise, anxiety, pain, fever, shock...
Tx for HTN
-decreae NA in diet
-stop smoking, reduce alcohol
-reduce stress
-use right size BP cuff
-orthostatic BP monitoring
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)
very serious!, if ruptured if can be life threatening, and will require immediate surgery...bypass or replacement grafting usually done
tamponade
hrt cannot contract like it should, cause from fluid build up and pressure (pericarditis)
Defibrillation
used to shock a PT out of a life threatening dysrhythmia, may need CPR prior; electrical stimulus porduced;
SA node
pacemaker of the hrt; area on the right atrium that initiates electrical impulses and causes contractions
ECG/EKG
P Wave-impulses from the SA node cause atria to contract or depolarize
QRS Complex-contraction and depolarization of ventricles
T Wave-resting or repolarization of ventricles
Cardic output
amount of bld pumped by the left ventricle in a minute
Premature Ventricular contractions (PVC's)
ventricular contractions occur before SA node sends electrical impulses, QRS complex on EKG is wide and distorted; Tx with meds=lidocaine
Coronary Artery Disease
obstructed flow in the coronary arteries; primary cause is athersclerosis; increases risk for MI; modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors; use of vasodilater meds, Nitro
nursing considerations for pt with cardiac catheterization
-must sign a consent
-NPO
-teach/educate
-sedative
-allergies
-fluids to rid of dye
-VS, pulses
Infective endocarditis
inflammation of inner lining of Hrt; usually cause by strep or staph; mitral vavle most commonly affected; use of antibiotics to Tx
Hypertension (HTN)
sustained elevation of arterial pressure with systolic >140 and dystolic >90
ECG/EKG
tracing that represents the hrts electrical activity