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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Quantitative Research
Goal = precision; Measurement
Surveys
a series of formatted questions delivered to a 
defined sample of people; Most often used method in the social sciences
Questionnaire
the specific set of questions that  respondents answer
Respondents

representative sample 
of people
Gathering Information via Surveys
Quick; Inexpensive; Efficient; Accurate; Flexible
Communicating with Respondents
 In person (one‐on‐one)
 Telephone interviews
 Self‐administered questionnaires
 Mall Intercepts
 Mail
 Email
 Web‐based pop‐up
 At a restaurant
Cross sectional Survey
one time survey, like a snap‐shot
Trend Survey
different groups of similar people
Panel studies survey
follow same people overtime
Cohort survey
specific group, such as a target audience
Leading questions
Suggest a particular answer; Force respondents to think something might be true 
even if it is not
Double barreled questions
Questions that have multiple items; Leads to inaccuracy and survey error; Every question should only measure one thing
Pretesting
A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey 
design
major problems with survey 
research
 Poor Design
 Improper Execution
Response Bias
A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the truth
Extremity Bias
A category of response bias that results because  response styles vary from person to person; some 
individuals tend to use extremes when responding to 
questions.
Auspices Bias
Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the 
respondents being inf luenced by the organization 
conducting the study.
Acquiescence Bias
A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position.
Interviewer Bias
A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers.
Social Desirability Bias
Bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role.
Sample
 Subset of a larger population
Population
Any complete group
Census
Investigation of all individual elements that make up a population
Sampling Frame
A list of elements from which the sample may be drawn
Sampling Units
Group selected for the sample;
Primary; Secondary; Tertiary 
Probability sampling
Known, nonzero probability for every element
Nonprobability sampling
Probability of selecting any particular member is unknown
Types of Nonprobability Sampling
 Convenience
 Judgment
 Quota
 Snowball
Types of Probability Sampling
 Simple random sample
 Systematic sample
 Stratified sample
 Cluster sample
 Multistage area sample
Convenience Sampling
Also called haphazard  or accidental sampling; The sampling procedure of obtaining the people or units that are most conveniently available
Judgment Sampling
Also called purposive sampling; An experienced individual  selects the sample based on his judgment about some  appropriate characteristics required of the sample member
Quota Sampling
Ensures  that the various subgroups in a population are represented on pertinent sample characteristics; To the exact extent that the investigators 
desire
Snowball Sampling
A variety of procedures;  Initial respondents are selected by probability methods; Additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents
Simple Random Sampling
A sampling procedure that ensures that each element in the population will have an equal 
chance of being included in the sample
Systematic Sampling
A simple process; Every nth name from the list will be drawn
Stratified Sampling
Subsamples are drawn within different strata; Each stratum is more or less equal on some characteristic
Concept
A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes
Operational
Specifies what the researcher must do to measure the concept under investigation
Media skepticism
the degree to which individuals are skeptical toward the reality presented in the mass media
Closed‐ended question
Pre‐defined response categories; Four levels: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio