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27 Cards in this Set

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Acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
Basic solution
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
Neutral solution
contains equal concentrations of hydroxide ions and hydrogen ions
Arrhenius model
an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution and a base is a substance that contains a hydroxide group and dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in aqueous solution

not inclusive enough
Bronsted-Lowry Model
says that an acid is a hydrogen-ion doner and a base is a hydrogen-ion acceptor

more inclusive than the Arrhenius model

HX(aq) + H20(l)==H30+(aq) + X-(aq)

HX (a molecule of acid) dissolves in water and donates a H+ ion to a water molecule. The water molecule then acts as a base and accepts the H+ ion

H30+ is an acid because it has an extra H+ ion it can donate

X- is a base because it has a negative charge so it can accept a H+ ion
conjugates
the acids and bases that react in the reverse reaction
conjugate acid
the species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion from an acid
conjugate base
the species produced when an acid donates a hydrogen ion to a base
conjugate acid-base pair
2 substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single hydrogen ion

involved in every bronsted-lowry interaction
Amphoteric
water and other substances than can act as both acids and bases
anhydrides
oxides that can becomes acids or bases by adding the elements contained in water
Strong acids
ionize completely

good conductors of electricity

weak conjugate bases
strong bases
dissociate entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions
weak acids
ionize only partially

poor conductors of electricity

produces an equilibrium mixture of molecules and ions in aqueous solution

acid ionization constant- the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a weak acid
-weakest acids have the smallest Ka
weak bases
ionizes only partially in dilute aqueous solution to form the conjugate acid of the base and hydroxide ion
Base ionization constant
the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a base

smaller the value of Kb , the weaker the base
Dilute/concentrated
the number of the acid or base molecules dissolved in a volume of solution (molarity)
Weak/strong
the degree to which the acid or base separates into ions
ion product constant for water
Kw = [H+][OH-]= (1.0 X 10^-7) (1.0 X 10^-7)
Kw = 1.0 X 10^-14

if the concentration of H+ ion increases, the concentration of OH- ion must decrease

Pure water contains equal concentrations of OH- ions and H+ ions produced by self-ionization
pH
pH = - log [H+]

acidic- pH is less than 7

basic- pH is greater than 7

neutral- pH = 7

logarithmic—a change in one pH unit = a tenfold change in ion concentration
- Ex: a solution with a pH of 3.0 has 10X the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution with a pH of 4.0
pOH
pOH= - log [OH-]
pH + pOH =
14

for all strong monoprotic acids, the concentration of the acid = the concentration of the H+ ion—you can use the concentration of the acid for calculating the pH
Neutralization reaction
a reaction in which an acid and a base react in aqueous solution to produce a salt and water

a double-replacement reaction
base + acid--a salt + water

The net ionic equation for the neutralization of a strong acid by a strong base is:
H+(aq) + OH-(aq)-- H20(l)
salt
an ionic compound made up of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
titration
a method for determining the concentration of a solution by reacting a known volume of the solution of known concentration

1.record the pH for a measured volume of an acidic or basic solution of unknown concentration
2.a buret is filled with the titrating solution of known concentration (standard solution)
3.measured volumes of the standard solution are added slowly and mixed into the solution in the beaker and the pH is observed after each addition until the equivalence point of titration is reached

- equivalence point- moles of H+ ion from the acid = moles of OH- ion from the base
- not always pH 7
- end point- the point at which the indicator used changes color
Salt hydrolysis
the anions of the dissociated salt accept hydrogen ions from water or the cations of the dissociated salt donate hydrogen ions to water
Buffers
solutions that resist changes in pH when limited
amounts of acid or base are added

a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid

resists changes in pH by reacting with any hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions added to the buffered solution

buffer capacity- the amount of acid or base a buffer solution can absorb w/o significant change in pH