Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/68

Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is hydrostatic pressure?
Mechanical pressure of water on the cellular membrane
What is net filtration?
Movement of fluid across the capillary wall from high to low pressure.
What is the net filtration equation?
Net filtration= (forces favoring filtration)-(forces opposing filtration)
What is tonicity?
Change in concentration of electrolytes in relation to water
To evaluate and treat dehydration you should:
draw labs, check urine, check ABG(arterial blood gas), and treat the cause
Water deficit is usually caused by:
water or sodium loss
When a person is dehydrated the____ is more concentrated.
urine
When a person is dehydrated they____ less.
urinate
When a person is dehydrated they cannot:
cry or sweat
When a person is dehydrated they become____ because there is no fluid in the GI tract.
constipated
When a person is dehydrated their____ appear sunken.
eyes
The 6 clinical manifestations of dehydration are:
tachycardia, weaker pulse, dizziness, less prominent neck veins, confusion, coma
Normal pH is:
7.35-7.45
The____ the H+ the more acidic.
higher
The____ the H+ the lower the pH.
higher
A pH of less than 7.35 is considered:
acidic
A pH of greater than 7.45 is considered:
basic
___,___, and___ are the major organs involved in regulation of acid-base balance.
lungs, kidneys and bone
The___ system does not act as rapidly as the___ system. But the two together are very effective b/c acid concentration can be adjusted rapidly by the___, and bicarbonate is easily reabsorbed or regenerated by the___.
renal
lungs
lungs
kidneys
Buffering systems, lungs and kidneys all try to:
compensate by working together to change pH back to 7.
Buffering systems absorb, bind, or release___ in accordance with the pH.
H+/OH-
___ hemoglobin is a better protein buffer than___ hemoglobin because it is saturated with oxygen.
unsaturated/venous blood
arterial blood
___ is an excellent protein buffer because of its ability to bind with H+.
hemoglobin
What is renal buffering?
the distal tubule regulates acid-base balance by secreting H+ into the urine and reabsorbing bicarbonate
ABG's (arterial blood gas) tell you:
whether the regulatory mechanisms of the lungs and kidneys are successfully maintaining proper pH.
Respirations effect on pH is indicated by the:
PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) level
Filtration
pushing water into interstitial space from higher pressure to lower pressure
The forces opposing filtration:
capillary oncotic pressure and interstitial hydrostatic pressure
The normal concentration of chloride
98-106 mEq/L
The normal concentration of sodium
136-145 mEq/L
The ICF has twice as much volume as the ECF because:
The ICF has twice as much solute
Interstitial fluid compartments(12)are located in:
lymph, synovial joints, intestines, biliary, pancreatic, cerebralspinal, sweat, urine, plural, pericardial, peritoneal, and interocular
The main ECF anion:
chloride
The normal concentration of potassium
3.5-5 mEq/L
Normal systolic blood pressure
90-140
In the capillary beds to systolic blood pressure reduces to:
25-30 mmHg
Filtration
pushing fluid into interstitial space from higher pressure to lower pressure
Intravascular fluid compartments:
fluid in the blood compartment (atrery, vein)
Osmolality controls:
distribution and movement of water between body compartments
Osmolality is the measure of the number of milliosmoles per___ or the concentration of molecules per___ of water.
kilogram of water
weight
Osmolarity is the measure of the number of milliosmoles per___ or the concentration of molecules per___ of solution.
liter of solution
volume
Osmosis
the movement of water down a concentration gradient, across a semipermeable membrane, from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration.
Osmolarity is the measurement that takes into account:
water and its displacment when molecules are added.
Oncotic pressure
pressure created by large molecules such as plasma proteins that cannot penetrate the membrane and pulls water towards the particles
Hypotonic pulls water___ cell. If too much then the cell may___.
into
burst
Hypotonic solutions are given for___.
dehydration
Examples of a hypotonic soulution given for dehydration:
water
half normal saline (0.45% NaCl)
Hypertonic pulls water___ cell. If too much then the cell may___.
out of
shrink
Hypertonic solutions are given for___.
dyalisis
The symptoms of dehydration show up when ___% of water is lost.
2
Protein buffering
Hemoglobin can bind with either H+ or OH-, espically venous hemoglobin that has given up an oxygen
Normal PaCO2 level
35-45 mmHg
PaCO2 above 45 mmHg results in:
acidosis
PaCO2 below 35 mmHg results in:
alkalosis
Normal HCO3 level
22-26 mEq/L
HCO3 below 22 mEq/L results in:
acidosis
HCO3 above 26 mEq/L results in:
alkalosis
The body's acid-base balance/ the hydrogen ion concentration of ECF is indicated by:
pH
Carbon dioxide reacts with water to become___.
acidic
Cabon dioxide___ when respiration is impaired.
accumulates
Carbon dioxide is___ in hyperventelation.
depleted
A___ value of PaCO2 denotes respiratory alkalosis.
lower
A___ value of PaCO2 denotes respiratory acidosis.
higher
Metabolic influences on pH are reflected in the level of:
alkali bicarbonate (HCO3)
A___ value of HCO3 denotes metabolic acidosis.
lower
A___ value of HCO3 denotes metabolic alkalosis.
higher
Normal PaCO2 level
35-45 mmHg
Normal HCO3 level
22-26 mEq/L