• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/110

Click to flip

110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Exercise Physiology
The study of the ways the cells and tissues of the body function during exercise
Specificity of Training
Physiological adaptations to exercise are specific to the system worked during the stress of exercise
Optimum Physical Fitness
The condition resulting from a lifestyle that leads to the development of an optimal level of cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility and ideal body weight
Cardiovascular or cardiopulmonary endurance
aerobic fitness...the ability of heart, lungs & blood vessels to deliver and adequate supply of oxygen to exercising muscles
Muscular strength
is the maximum amount of force a muscle or muscle group can develop during a single contraction
Muscular endurance
is the number of repeated contractions a muscle or muscle group can perfomr against a resistance without fatiguing or the length a contraction can be held without failure
Flexibility
is the amount of movement which can be accomplished at a joint
Body Fat
the body's primary reserve of stored energy, stored as triglycerides both in adipose cells under skin and in muscles
Percent body fat
represents the percentage of total body weight which is carried as fat
Ideal body fat percentage
17-25% for women
10-16 percent for men
Lean body mass
the rest of the body's weight, excluding fat
Most important use of fitness tests
to establish a baseline against which improvement can be measured over time
Types of blood vessels
arteries, capillaries and veins
Atria
upper chambers of the heart
Ventricles
lower chambers of heart
Order of blood flow through heart
heart receives venous blood into right atrium
blood flows to right ventricle
heart contracts blood into lungs
blood picks up oxygen from lungs
blood returns to left atrium & ventricle
blood goes through aorta to body
Systole
contraction phase of cardiac cycle
Diastole
Relaxation phase of cardiac cycle
Benefit of high level of cardiopulmonary fitness
Heart spends more time resting in diastole at any submaximal exercise intensity, including rest than in a poorly trained system
Cardiac output
Q=HR x SV
Output equals heart rate (beats per minute) times stroke volume (amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle (ml per beat)
a typical amount of cardiac output per minute at rest
about a gallon

60 bpm x 70ml/beat=4200 ml/min
Ejection Fraction
Percentage of the total volume of blood left in ventricles at end of diastole that is then ejected during contraction
Ejection fraction at rest
50% because of minimal need of oxygen in muscles at rest
Ejection fraction during exercise
can increase to 100%
Oxygen extraction
amount of oxygen taken from the hemoglobin and used in exercising muscle cells
Is all oxygen extracted at capillaries
No, there is some oxygen in the blood which returns back to the heart.
What is major limitation to exercise performance?
Ability of muscles to extract oxygen from bloodstream to produce energy.
What is so important about oxygen?
It is needed in energy production. In aerobic energy production it mixes with fatty acids and glucose to produce ATP
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate. The body's energy source
Mitochondria
structures in most cells that are the site of ATP production. The more you have in a cell, the greater aerobic energy production capability of that cell. Also contain enzymes used in ATP production.
Ischemia
decreased flow of blood to heart muscle through artery
Angina Pectoris
sensation of pain and or pressure in the chest
Myocardial infarction
Heart attack. Blood supply is cut off to myocardium due to clot.
Stroke
ischemia can lead to this in the brain
The two substances (substrates) used by body's cells to produce most of the ATP supply
Fatty acids and carbohydrates.
Fats and glucose
Proteins are comprised of...
amino acids
Which substrates are used to produce ATP at rest?
Fatty acids and glucose are used aerobically (with oxygen). The body produces 1 calorie per minute
How much of the 1 cal/min aerobic energy production at rest comes from fat in untrained individuals and from trained individuals?
Untrained: 50%
Trained: 70%
When does the body switch from aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production?
When the cardiovascular system becomes unable to supply enough oxygen to the exercising muscles. This point depends on aerobic fitness levels and genetics
Aerobic Threshold
The intensity of exercise (percentage of maximum effort) at which adequate oxygen in unavailable & ATP production switches to anaerobic.
How long is phosphagen energy system used for?
less than 10 seconds to fatigue
How long is glucose energy system used for?
from 1-3 minutes to fatigue
How long is aerobic energy system used for?
longer than 3 minutes to fatigue or at rest
When a muscle uses the anaerobic system what substance does it rely on?
Glucose glycogen and to a limited extent phosphagens (creatine phosphate)
How long can a muscle go for at max effort using stored ATP and creatine phosphate (Phosphagens)
about 10 seconds
When a muscle uses the aerobic system for energy production what substances are used to produce ATP?`
Fatty acids, glucose, glycogen (carbohydrates)
Which energy system produces more ATP per molecule of substrate used?
Aerobic
What are the waste products of aerobic energy system?
Water and CO2
What are the waste products of anaerobic energy system?
lactic acid
What are signs that muscles can't produce enought ATP aerobically?
Hyperventilation
muscle burn
muscle fatigue
What chemistry does the body depend on for ATP production?
enzymes. they are needed to start the chimical reactions which produce ATP.
Enzymes
proteins needed to bring about bio-chemical reactions
Aerobic training is best to improve...?
fat burning
Aerobic Capacity
maximal oxygen consumption or VO2 max
The total capacity to consume oxygen at the cellular level
VO2 max=
cardiac output max x oxygen extraction max or

(HRrest x stroke volume) x (6 ml o2/100ml of blood)
MET
Metabolic Equivalent
1 MET =
resting VO2 or 3.5mlO2/kg/min
Two common methods of determining heart rate training zones
Max Heart Rate Formula
(most common)
Karvonen
(more accurate because it takes into account fitness levels with resting HR)
Max Heart Rate Formula
220- age x percent of hear rate max for training
Why do people with more efficient myocardium have lower resting heart rates?
They have greater stroke volume.
What 2 things increase as you begin to exercise?
Why?
Heart Rate
Stroke Volume
To increase the delivery of oxygen to working muscles.
What happens to blood pressure as you begin to exercise?
Systolic pressure should increase as diastolic pressure stays the same or even decreases because of dilation of blood vessels.
Name adaptations of cardiac output in response to aerobic training
Interior dimension of ventricles increases, thus
Resting heart rate decreases
Stroke volume at rest increases
Heart rate at submaximal intensity lowers
Name adaptations in oxygen extraction in response to aerobic training
New capillaries are produced in active skeletal muscles (increases area for the exchange of oxygen)
Increase in mitochondrial density
Increase in enzyme activity in mitochondria leading to greater use of oxygen
Increase in anaerobic threshold
Other adaptations du to aerobic training
Use more fat for energy
Store more glycogen in trained muscles and produce less lactic acid giving improved endurance
Helps us deal with stress
Expain FITT
Frequency
Intensity
Time (Duration)
Type
Name some reasons for warm-up
increases temp of muscle and connective tissue reducing risk of injury.
Slowly allows for adjustment in blood flow from addominal area to active muscles
Name some benefits of aerobic exercise
Body composition benefits
Decreases appetite
Calorie burning
Strengthen skeletal system
Increases sensitivity to insulin
Reduces risk of CAD
Reduces body fat
How do you adjust fitness for people exercising at high altitudes?
Reduce intensity until acclimated (2-5 weeks depending on altitude)
Heart rate may be 50% higher
How do you adapt fitness in heat?
Venous return & stroke volume decrease due to dilation of blood vessels near skin leading to increase in heart rate
Sweating
Increased need for hydration
How do you adapt exercise in the cold?
Kidneys increase urine production in cold and water evaporates in exhaled air, so need for hydration
Dress in layers
What are cardiac cells?
muscle cells unique in structure and function and found only in the heart
What are smooth muscle cells?
found in the walls of arteries which allow for constriction and dilation
found in walls of the intestine
What are skeletal muscle cells?
all other muscle cells in skeletal muscles
What are characteristics of Slow Twitch Fibers?
contracts more slowly
has many mitochondria
high aerobic capacity
fatigue resistant
red in color due to high blood content
thin and weak
What are characteristics of Fast Twitch II fibers?
IIa are intermediate, both aerobic & anaerobic.
IIb are glycolytic, quick bursts, highest rate of contraction, highest rate of fatigue
Both are white fibers, larger
Muscles are composed of many...
individual muscle fibers
Running the length of each muscle fiber are...
strands of protein called myofibrils
Myofibrils
strands of protein inside muscle fibers
What are the two proteins in myofibrils?
Actin
Myosin
Sliding filament theory
There must be sufficient ATP present near the actin & myosin proteins plus a nervous system impulse so that the tiny projections from the myosin (myosin heads) attach to the actin forming an actin-myosin cross bridge.
Concentric contraction
a contraction in which a muscle exerts force, shortens, and overcomes a resistance
Eccentric contraction
a contraction in which a muscle exerts force, lengthens and is overcome by a resistance
Isometric contraction
a contraction in which a muscle exerts force but does no change in length
What 2 factors affect the amount of force that is generated during muscle contraction?
the size of the individual fibers contracting
the number of muscle fibers which contract simultaneously
What other things affect the amount of force generated by muscle contraction?
speed of movement at joint
initial length of the muscle
length-tension relationship
cross-sectional area of muscle tissue
number of motor units
Motor unit
a single motor nerve (from the spinal cord) and all the muscle fibers it stimulates
What are some variables in strength-training adaptations?
relationship of resistance & repetitions
distribution of fast & slow twitch fibers
level of testosterone
increased number of sacrcomeres
increase in contractile protein
What are some of the adaptations in strength training?
Increase in size of muscle (hypertrophy)
Connective tissue adaptations
Increased nervous system activity
Decrease nervous Inhibition
Cartilage
padding between the bones that meet at a joint
Ligaments
tissue that connect bones to bones at a joint
Tendons
tissue that connect skeletal muscles to the bones, transmitting the force of muscle contraction to the bones
How does connective tissue adapt to strength training?
becomes thicker thus stronger
more able to withstand increase force of contraction
How does the nervous system adapt to strength training?
inactive motor units are stimulated

recruitment of previously inactive motor units is responsible for much of the initial increase in strength

decrease in nervous inhibition of muscle

raises threshold of force at which the golgi tendon organ is stimulated
Golgi tendon organ
a part of the nervous system which protects against generating too much contractile force
Isometric
Iso=same
metric= length
exercises which use max effort against an immovable object
Isotonic
iso=same
tonic=tone or tension
exercises that contract the muscle while moving one or more joints
Isokinetic
performed on a specialized machine so no matter how much effort is exerted, the movement takes place at a constant speed. Such exercise is used to test and improve muscular strength and endurance, especially after injury.
Flexibility
the range of motion around a joint
Name four factors that limit flexibility
elastic limits of the ligaments & tendons crossing the joint

elasticity of the muscle tissue

bone and joint structure

skin
Ligaments
tissue that connect bones to bones at a joint
Tendons
tissue that connect skeletal muscles to the bones, transmitting the force of muscle contraction to the bones
How does connective tissue adapt to strength training?
becomes thicker thus stronger
more able to withstand increase force of contraction
How does the nervous system adapt to strength training?
inactive motor units are stimulated

recruitment of previously inactive motor units is responsible for much of the initial increase in strength

decrease in nervous inhibition of muscle

raises threshold of force at which the golgi tendon organ is stimulated
Golgi tendon organ
a part of the nervous system which protects against generating too much contractile force
What is the "all or nothing" principle?
If the muscle is stimulated to contract, all the sarcomeres that are innervated by that motor neuron will contract.
Gradation of force
The number of neurons that are activated for a muscle contraction.
What are two types of connective tissues?
Collagen
Elastic fibers
What are collagen tissues made of?
proteins that provide strength and relative inflexibility limiting motion and stretch.
Found in tendons and ligaments
What are elastic fibers made of?
Amino acids and provide for stretch. Found around sarcomeres and other organs