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127 Cards in this Set

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Mesopotamia
"between the rivers", region between the Tigris and Euphrates, home of Babylon, Assyria, and other civs
Sumer
south of Mesopotamia in 3rd and 2nd millenium BC
Ubaid Period
5 and 6 millenia BC, dark hatched pottery, precursors of ziggurats
Uruk culture
grey pottery on wheel, two temples, 50,000 people, plow, wheel, bevel-rimmed bowls, clay tablets
Jemdet Nasr
3100-2900 BC, cuneiform, cylinder seals, bronze, overseas trade
en
lord, high priest
ensi
governor
lugal
great man, king
Sir Leonard Wolley
discovered royal cemetery of 1st dynasty of Ur
edduba
Sumerian 'tablet house' (school)
ummia
Sumerian term for expert or professor
Lugalzagesi
(2371-2347) sacked Lugash, Uruk king
Sargon
Akkadian king, conquered from Med Sea to Persian Gulf
Naram-Sin
Sargon's grandson, seen by future generations as cause of fall of Akkadian Empire
Gudea
Lagash king, Neo-Sumerian Renaissance, literature
Ur-Nammu
founder of last dynasty of Sumer, enlightened king, built lots
Shulgi
law code and administrative reforms (Ur III) son of Ur-Nammu
# of Egyptian dynasties and kings
31 dynasties, 170 kings
Herodotus
first to make an attempt at a history of Egypt, Greek historian, visited in 5th century BC
Manetho
Greco-Egyptian priest, 1st to divide Egyptian history into dynasties
Jean Francois Champollion
cracked Rosetta Stone 1822
Flinders Petrie
archaeologist in 1800s established "sequence-date chronology" of prehistoric events
hedjet
white crown of Upper Egypt
deshret
red crown of Lower Egypt
heb-sed
celebration of royal renewel
Menes
legendary unifier of Egypt, founded (maybe) Memphis
nomes
traditional administrative districts in Egypt
Aha
founder of 1st Dynasty in Egypt
Khasekhemwy
last king of 2nd dynasty, tomb is first with stone
Old Kingdom
2686-2181 BC, 3rd through 6th dynasties
Saqquara (step pyramid)
built by Djoser, architect Imhotep, earliest pyramid complex, 1st building all of stone
mastaba
"bench" in Arabian, stone slab tomb
Sir Arthur Evans
divided Cretan periods--Early, Middle, and Late Minoan
Knossos
site of palace, over 100 rooms, frescoes
Linear A
script in Middle Minoan Period, replaced hieroglyphics
Michael Ventris
deciphered Linear B
Minoan religion
matriarchal, peaceful, king religious leader
1st Intermediate Period
(2181-2060 BC) breakdown, 70 kings in 70 days, for most time of development and complexity, more tombs and pottery, stress, creativity
ma'at
Egyptian concept of ntl stability and cosmic order
Mentuhotep II
fourth king of 11th dynasty, reunited Egypt, founder of middle kingdom
Amenemhet I
1st king of 12th dynasty, moved to Itj-towy and pyramid at Lisht, built "Walls-of-the-Ruler", return to centralization, co-regency
Senusret I
built lots, founded emple of Atum-Re at Karnak
genut
official records (Egypt)
Sesostris
composite hero credited with various successes of Egyptian Kings (12D)
Coffin Texts
group of over 1000 funerary spells, showed average Egyptian's process to afterlife
Pyramid Texts
over 800 spells, recorded only in pyramids
wanax
king of Mycenae
tholos
domed, beehive tomb (Mycenae)
dromos
unroofed corridor approaching a tomb (Mycenae)
Linear B
89 character syllabic script, early form of Greek
megaron
great room in palace (Mycenae)
Ishbi-Erra
2017-1985, Isin, peace to Mesopotamia, Elamites expelled
Lipit-Ishtar
Isin, 1934-1924, law code
Rimsin
Larsa, Isin incorporated into Larsa
Hammurabi
6th of 1st dynasty of Babylon, 1792-1750 BC, waited and then conquered alliance, Larsa, ect. (except Syria and Elam), Law Code
Hammurabi's Code
on stele 7 ft high, 282 sections, punishments varied based on victims, royal propaganda, main in Temple of Marduk
awilum
nobles (Babylon)
mushkenum
commoners (Babylon)
wardum
slaves (Babylon)
Assyria
Semetic, traders, loose states
Hurrians
appeared in 3rd millenium BC, non-semetic, link between cultures, founded Mitanni
Hittites
Indo-European, lang related to Greek, migrated 2700 BC, king chosen by elders for military
Labarnas I
founded Hittite Kingdom 1680
Hattusilis I
expanded Hatti, extablished capital at Hattusas
Mursilis I
Hatti, military success
Kassites
unknown origin, agricultural and military servants, tribal families, own language, took control of Babylon for 500 yrs
14th dynasty
official Nehesy, at Xois, short
15th and 16th dynasties
Avaris, Hyksos took power, new weapons introduced
17th dynasty
concurrent with 15th and 16th, Thebes, tryed to restore, cut off from Memphis, Kamose
18th dynasty
reorganization and reconquest, expansion of Amun worship, literary and artistic works, Thebes
Ahmose I
secured Nile Delta, restored regnal power, tried to resume royal patronage of cult institutions
Amenhotep I
secured borders to s and pushed outward, temple monuments
Thutmose I
fathered Hatshepsut and Thutmose II, projects at Karnak, military in Nubia and Syria-Palestine, Egyptianization of Nubia
Hatshepsut
"King of Upper and Lower Egypt", tradign and building, advisor Senemut, neglected military
Thutmose III
regained military prowess, lots of military success
Amenhotep II
athletic, harsh subjugation, development and peace at home, trade increase
Thutmose IV
questioned legitimacy, Sphinx, improvements to temples, married Mitanni ruler's daughter, Aten worship began
Amenhotep III
peace, building projects, foreign princesses
Agum II Katrime
Kassite, unopressive policy, restored statue of Marduk
Burnaburiash I
fixed border with Assyria (Kassite)
Kurigalzu I
Kassite, allied with Egypt, founded Dur-Kurigalzu
Kurigalzu II
conquered Elam, storngest Kassite ruler, ziggurat
kudurru
Kassite invention, small carved stones 1 m high, recorded land grants
Mitanni
from Med Sea to Zagros, capital Washukanni, powerbroker
Suppiluliumas
Hittite king, rebuild, restore order, conquered things
Hattusilis III
Hittite, allied with Egypt against Assyria
Middle Assyrian Empire
fertile plain, good soldiers
Ashur-uballit I
founder of modern Assyria, consolidated power, military
Tukulti-Ninurta I
solidified power, built capital named after self, serious conflicts internally
Tiglath-Pileser I
Assyrian, smelting iron, extended kingdom, model king, but terror and brutal
Armana Letters
group of 350 interntl correspondences from 14th century BC, in Akkadian, 382 tablets, found 1887 , tone gets worse during Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
stopped expansion, started monotheistic worship of sun disk, new capital Akhetaten, Queen Nefertiti, traditions banned, fall from imperial glory, economic and foreign fall
Tutankhamen
queen Ankhesenpaamen, abandoned Aten, changed stuff back as best he could
Horemheb
usurper and military man after Tut, restoration, stopped graft and corruption, military success
biblos
Greek word for papyrus, origin of the name for Phoenician city Byblos
Dido
founded Tyre, Carthagian princess
Pindus Mountains
mt range in Greece that divided the east and west coast
Gulf of Corinth
in Greece, divided the Peloponnese and mainland Greece
Eastern Greek
included Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and ancient Arcadian/Achaen Greek speakers
Aeolic
Greek speakers from Boeotia and Thessaly, migrated to Lesbos and NW Asia Minor
Ionic
Greek speakers from Attica and Euboea, Cyclades, and SW Asia Minor, Miletus, Smyrna, and Ephesus
Western Greek
NW Greek speakers from Elis, Aetolia, and Central Greece; speakers of doric dialects in S and E Pelo., Magna Graecia, Crete, Corfu, Ambracia, and the Dodecanese
Lefkandi
structure on Euboe with colonnades, horse-shoe shaped, gives evidence of funeral traditions and trade in the Greek Dark Ages
poleis
citadels or walled states, organizations of Greece
basileus
Greek king
boule
Greek council
phratriai
citzens (Greece)
demos
free peasants (Greece)
thetes
landless laborers (Greece)
agora
marketplace and civic center, place for political debate
demokratia
"the power of the people" (Greece)
oikistes
founder of a Greek colony
metropolis
"mother city" to a Greek colony; though the colony was independent it often adopted the politics and religions of its metropolis
Pithecusae
first datable Greek colony (775 BC)
Magna Graecia
the Greek colonies in S. Italy "Greater Greece"
Etruria
region on Italian peninsula west of the Apennine Mts.
Orientalization
the effects of a cross-cultural interaction in which a western culture absorbs some aspects of an eastern one
Etruscan League of 12 Peoples
defensive league in ancient Etruria
principes
aristocracy of agrarian nobles (Etruria)
Latium
region containing Rome
Nebuchadnezzar
Assyrian king, sacked Jerusalem, unsuccessful in Egypt, built lots including Hanging Gardens
Achaemenes
semi-legendary founder of Persia
Cyrus the Great
rebelled against Astyages, defeated Lydians and Babylon, toleration
archon
chief leader in Thessaly
boeotarchs
chief magistrates of Boeotian Confederacy
diolkos
"drag-way", built by Periander across the isthmus of Crointh so ships could be hauled over land
hoplites
heavily armored infantry drawn from the citizenry