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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
which factors are released by platelets in the inflammatory phase?
Platelet derived growth factor PDGF and TGF-beta
which gene codes for PDGF?
Sis oncogene, overexpressed in certain cancers
what are the effects of TGF-beta?
Chemotaxis and activation of PMN's, macrophages, and fibroblasts, as well as angiogenesis and epithelialization
what can result from overproduction of TGF-beta?
Fibrosis, hypertrophic scars, keloids
what gene codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR?
Erb B (also known as Her2 and Neu) oncogene, overexpressed in certain cancers and carries a worse prognosis and cancers when it is overexpressed this receptor is blocked by the medication Herceptin (trastuzumab)
what gene codes for platelet derived growth factor?
Sis oncogene
what is unique about platelet activating factor?
Unlike other factors platelet activating factor is not stored in cells but rather cleaves off the cell membrane by phospholipase
what is the precursor to nitrous oxide?
arginine
which main enzyme is involved in nitrous oxide synthesis?
Nitrous oxide synthase
what is nitrous oxide biochemical effect on the cell?
activation of guanylate cyclase, causing increased cyclic GMP and subsequently calcium sequestration, smooth muscle relaxation
what is the other name for nitrous oxide?
Endothelium derived relaxing factor, EDRF
what does endothelin cause?
vascular smooth muscle constriction
what are the two main cytokines in injuries and infections?
IL-1 and TNF alpha
what cell predominantly releases IL-1 and TNF alpha?
Macrophages
which cytokine is responsible for fever?
IL-1, by promoting PGE2 release, which raises the thermal setpoint in the hypothalamus
what is the pathophysiology of fever in atelectasis?
Secretion of IL-1 by alveolar macrophages
which cytokine is responsible for cachexia?
TNF alpha
which cytokine is the most potent stimulus for hepatic acute phase protein release?
IL-6
wish to hepatic proteins are decreased in the acute phase response?
Albumin and transferrin
which sells predominantly release interferons?
Lymphocytes
what are the anti-inflammatory cytokines?
IL-4, 10, 13
what activates the classic component pathway?
antibody antigen complexes, IgG and IgM only, which is why they are called opsonins
which factors are only found in the classic complement pathway?
C1, C2, and C4
what activates the alternate complement pathway?
bacterial endotoxins
which factors are only found in the alternate complement pathway?
factors B, D, and Properdin
which factor marks the convergence point of both classic and alternative complement pathways?
C3
which complement factors are chemotactic and anaphylatoxins?
C3 and C5
which complement factor initiates the membrane attack complex?
C5
which complement factors make up the membrane attack complex?
C5 through C9
which electrolyte is required in the complement pathways?
Magnesium
ASA inhibits which enzyme?
Cyclooxygenase
all prostaglandins cause vasodilation except?
PGF2
steroids inhibit which enzyme?
Phospholipase, which converts phospholipids to arachidonic acid
which of the slow reacting substances of anaphylaxis?
leukotrienes, LTC, LTD, and LTE
which platelet granules contain adenosine, serotonin, and calcium?
Dense granules
which platelet granules contain lately derived growth factor PDGF and TGF-beta?
Alpha granules
when do catecholamines peak after injury?
24 to 48 hours
what role does thyroid hormone play in tissue injury?
none
what role do CXC chemokines play?
chemotaxis, angiogenesis, and wound healing
what does NADPH oxidase do?
produce oxygen radicals from 02
in which disease is NADPH oxidase absent?
Chronic granulomatous disease, resulting in an inability of phagocytes to kill ingested pathogens
what does super oxide dismutase do?
Produce hydrogen peroxide from oxygen radicals
what does myeloperoxidase do?
produce hypochlorous acid HOCl from H2O2, hydrogen peroxide
which enzyme reduces H2O2?
Catalase reduces hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen
with regards to cell adhesion, rolling is mediated by which leukocyte and endothelium receptors?
Rolling is mediated by the binding of L-selectins on leukocytes to E-selectins on endothelium
with regards to cell adhesion, anchoring and diapedesis is mediated by which leukocyte and endothelium receptors?
Anchoring and diapedesis is mediated by the binding of integrins on leukocytes to ICAM on the endothelium