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57 Cards in this Set

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falciform ligament
sickle shaped fold of peritoneum that attaches the liver to teh anterior abdominal wall superior to the umbilicus
ligamentum teres
rounded cord attached to the inferior free margin of teh falciform ligament and runs to the umbilicus; remnant of umbilical vein
coronary ligament
peritoneal fold extending around the superior edge of teh liver and attaching to the diaphragm
greater omentum
large fatty fold of peritoneum that extends inferiorly from the greater curvature of the stomach in an apron like fashion back to the transverse colon to cover most of the abdominal contents
lesser omentum
smaller fold of peritoneum that extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach and the 1st part of teh dueodenum to the liver
transverse mesocolon
broad double fold of peritoneum that connects the transverse colon to the posterior abdominal wall
abdominal aorta
gives rise to most abdominal arteries; begins in aortic hiatus in diaphragm (T12) and ends at L4 when it bifurcates into 2 common iliac arteries
celiac trunk
branch of abd. aorta; located posterior to the stomach around T12 level; gives rise to 3 branches that supply all the embryonic foregut structures
L. Gastric A.
may give rise to an aberrant left hepatic artery; branch of celiac trunk
Splenic A.
branch of celiac trunk; gives rise to: dorsal pancreatic a., great pancreatic a., short gastric arteries, and left gastroepiploc artery.
Common hepatic a.
branch of celiac trunk; gives rise to gastroduodenal a.; the name then changes to hepatic artery; the proper hepatic artery gives the right gastric artery branch and then divides into right and left hepatic arteries
superior mesenteric a.
artery situated in the uncinate process of the pancreas; supplies the embryonic midgut and gives numerous jejunal and ilieal branches
Ileocolic a.
Branch of SMA that supplies the cecum
Right colic a.
branch of SMA that supplies the ascending colon
middle colic a.
branch of SMA that supplies the transverse colon
Inferior Mesenteric A.
arises about 4 cm above the aortic bifurcation to supply the embryonic hindgut and gives rise to the 3 main branches
left colic a.
branch of IMA; supplies the descending colon
sigmoidal a.
branch of IMA; supplies the sigmoid colon
superior rectal a.
branch of IMA; supplies the superior portion of the rectum
L. Gastric A.
(from celiac trunk); runs in lesser omentum to cardiac portion of stomach before turning to run along lesser curvature of the stomach to anastomose with R. gastric a.; 20-25% of pop'n gives rise to aberrant left hepatic artery
aberrant left hepatic a.
found in 20-25% of pop'n; branch of left gastric artery that supplies the left lobe of the liver
right gastric a.
(from proper hepatic a.); also courses along lesser curvature near pyloric portion of stomach to anastomose w/ left gastric artery
L. gastroepoploic a.
(from splenic a.); courses along greater curvature to anastomose with rigth gastroepiploic a.
R. Gastroepiploic a.
(from gastroduodenal a.); runs along the greater curvature to anastomose with the left gastroepiploic artery
Short gastric a.
(from splenic a.); travels along the upper part of the greater curvature of the stomach
dorsal gastric a.
(from splenic a.); courses superiorly to supply the dorsal surface of the stomach; not found in all persons but may be damaged during surgery if present but not appreciated
vermiform appendix
small, thin blind ending tube of variable length; position is mobile, but usually inferior and posterior to the cecum; arterial blood supply is by the appendicular artery
McBurney's Point
approximately the half-way point on a line b/t the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle; usually the location of the appendix
tenia coli
longitudinal bands of smooth muscle of the colon
haustra
longitudinal sacculations found b/t the tenia coli of the colon
epiploic appendages
outpocketings of peritoneum filled with fat; most prominent in the descending colon
ascending colon
passes superiorly on the right side of the body from the cecum to the liver; at this point it makes a sharp turn to the left to become transverse colon; arterial blood supply is by the ileocolic and right colic arteries (branches of SMA)
right colic flexure (hepatic flexure)
the angle at which the ascending colon becomes the transverse colon
transverse colon
most mobile portion of the colon; extends from the hepatic flexure transversely across the superior region of the abdominal cavity to the spleen; at this point it makes a sharp inferior turn and become descending colon; arterial blood supply is middle colic artery (branch of SMA)
left colic flexure (splenic flexure)
the angle at which the transvers colon becomes the descending colon
sigmoid colon
links the descending colon to the rectum; extends from the pelvic brim to the 3rd segment of the sacrum; termination of tenia coli indicates the beginning of rectum; arterial blood supply is superior sigmoid arteries (branches of SMA)
marginal artery (of Drummond)
arterial channel that connects the SMA and IMA for collateral circulation throughout the large intestine
liver
lgst. gland in body; produces bile that is stored in gallbladder; 4 lobes (right, left, caudate, quadrate); covered by peritoneum except on posterior surface where its in direct contact with diaphragm
bare area of liver
posterior surface of liver that is in direct contact with diaphragm; where the IVC is located
proper hepatic artery
at the entrance the the liver (portal hepatis); divides into right and left hepatic arteries
portal vein
from SMV and splenic vein; carries absorbed nutrients from the intestine
portal triad
contains the proper hepatic artery, portal vein, and common bile duct (union of common hepatic duct and cystic duct)
caput medusa
swollen periumbilical veins that appear as the snake like hair of medusa around the umbilicus; found w/ portal HTN
gallbladder
small pear shaped sac located on the inferior side of the liver; stores and concentrates bile and releases it upon hormonal stimulation from the SI; neck ends in the cystic artery
pancreas
elongate, retoperitoneal mixed gland roughly 6-7 inches long that lies transversely across the posterior abdominal wall, posterior to the stomach
pancreatic ducts
joins the common bile duct from the liver and gallbladder and enters the duodenum as the hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater)
accessory duct
duct that may be present and leads directly from the pancreas into the duodenum
dorsal pancreatic a.
branch of splenic a.; located near the origin of teh splenic artery and passes to the neck of the pancreas
great pancreatic a.
branch of splenic a.; found near the juction of the body and tail of the pancreas
spleen
large LYMPHATIC organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen; notoriety comes from complications resulting from injury to organ or splenic vessels
visceral peritoneum
peritoneum that covers the organs
parietal peritoneum
peritoneum that lines the walls of the peritoneal cavity
intraperitoneal organs
organs that lie b/t the peritoneal layers
retroperitoneal organs
organs that lie posterior to the parietal peritoneum (kidneys, adrenal glands, abdominal aorta, and pancreas)
peritoneal ligaments
folds of peritoneum that anchor organs to the abdominal wall; includes: falciform ligamen, ligamentum teres, coronary ligament, greater omentum, lesser omentu, and transverse mesocolon
nerves of laterjet
nerves arising from the anterior and posterior vagal trunks; when cut they reduce the amt of acid produced in the stomach
McBurney's point
located b/t the umbilicus and ASIS on the right