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40 Cards in this Set

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Where is the bare area of the liver located?
Posterior aspect of right lobe
The adult liver weighs?
1200-1600 grams
Using the mid-clavicular measurement the normal liver should not exceed?
16cm
What is Glisson's capsule?
Layer of connective tissue surrounding the liver
Hepatic veins are (interlobar or intersegmental)?
Intersegmental
Sagitally, the right hepatic artery lies where in relation to the common bile duct and main portal vein?
Circular structure between the CBD and MPV
An ALT-SGPT increase can indicate?
Hepatocellular Dz., Biliary obstruction
An AST-SGOT increase can indicate?
Hepatocellular Dz, muscular or skeletal damage
Direct Bilirubin increase can indicate?
Hepatocellular Dz., biliary tract obstruction
Indirect Bilirubin increase can indicate?
Hepatocellular Dz, or disorders causing increased in red blood cell hemolysis
What is the most specific indicator for biliary obstruction?
ALP (alkaline phosphatase)
An increase in AFP is present in 50% of patients with?
Hepatomas or hepatoblastomas
What is diffuse hepatocellular disease?
Disease which affects the hepatocytes of the liver and interferes with liver function
What are some types of Diffuse Liver Dz.?
Fatty Liver, Hepatitis, Glycogen's Storage Dz, Cirrhosis
Describe Fatty Liver Infiltration
Required, reversible dz. which results in excess accumulation of triglycerides in the liver cells
Focal fatty sparring is commonly seen where anatomically?
Anterior to the gallbladder
Describe Glycogen Storage Dz.
Autosomal recessive disorder causing excess glycogen accumulation
Glycogen storage dz is commonly associated with what liver mass?
Adenomas
Describe Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver due to alcohol abuse, medication or viral infection
How is Hepatitis A spread?
Oral-fecal route
How does Hep B & C spread?
Via blood pathways or exposure to body fluids containing blood
Describe the AST-SGOT and ALT-SGPT lab values with Hepatitis
Marked increase in values which fall rapidly over several days
The "starry sky" appearance is commonly seen with acute or chronic hepatitis? WHy?
Acute. Due to the fact that the liver echogenicity decreases so the portal triads stand out more
Describe the sonographic findings of chronic hepatitis
Increased liver echogenicity, coarse texture, decreased echogenicity of portal triads, portal HTN
Describe liver Cirrhosis
Fibrosis, scarring and parenchymal necrosis of liver tissue with disorganized nodular regeneration
Which liver lobe enlarges with Cirrhosis?
Caudate
What are some predisposing factors for hepatocellular carcinoma?
Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatitis B
What is the most common cause of portal HTN?
Cirrhosis
What is Budd Chiari Syndrome
Thrombotic dz of the IVC and hepatic veins
The main portal vein should not exceed __ in diameter?
13mm
What does TIPS stand for?
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
What is the the function of TIPS?
Allows blood to flow from portal system directly into the hepatic vein
What is cavernous transformation?
Multiple small vessels at the porta hepatis as a result of recannalization of the thrombosed portal vein
What makes a true liver cyst?
True liver cysts are congenital and contain an epithelial lining
What is a pyogenic abscess?
Localized collection of pus and/or debri due to bacterial infection
What is the most common bacteria that causes a pyogenic abscess?
E. coli
What are some lab values that would indicate a pyogenic abscess?
Elevated WBC count, elevated LFT, Anemia
What is an Amebic abscess?
Liver infection most commonly caused by the parasite Entamoeba hystolytic
Candidaisis is a fungal/yeast infection commonly seen in ___ patients?
Immunocompromised patients
How does candidiasis appear on ultrasound?
"Wheel within a Wheel" or target sign