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98 Cards in this Set

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Proper Safety oversight provides for:
Inspection, follow-up and resolution of all safety issues identified on an airport.
The keys to safety oversight are:
Awareness and diligence.
Awareness and diligence involve whatthat employees have an understanding of 4 items:
1. Regulations and procedures
2. How the airfield functions
3. Duty to ensure the safety of others.
4. Work-related responsibilites
Expectations of a proper safety management system mean that each employee must do 1 of these 4 items
Immediately address any safety issue
Prevent, restrict or modify operations. Until the the issue is corrected
Airport operations, safety, maintenance personal who ID unstatifactory conditions during and inspection should:
Bring the discrepancy to the attention of a supervisor for corrective action.
Proximate cause
Main cause of an accident
What method should be used when correcting deficencies?
Each individual airports approved procedues and certification mainual.
When must all discrepancies be corrected or resolved at air carrier airports?
Before the commencement of of air carrier operations
When must all discrepancies be corrected or resolved at General Aviation airports?
As expiditiously as possible
Safety oversight is defined as:
those means and activities by which airport management ensures effective implementation of standards and procedures contained in the FAR's, ACM, and other general industry requirements. (OHSA, NFPA, EPA)
Safety Management System (SMS) refers to?
How an airport will carry out its safety oversight function.
SMS includes what 4 functions:
1. Structure of the organization
2. method of organizational control
3. assignment of thier responsibilities
4. related decision-making processes.
SMS encompasses 4 items:
Various processes, procedures, resource allocation and other provisions an airport organization implements to obtain its safety goals.
What is the responsibility of Airport operations personel?
1. Ensure equipment is used properly
2. Follow instructions and safety procedures
3. Keep work areas clean
4. Take measurements to double check work
what 6 factor are considered to be the cause of accidents?
1. complacency or apathy
2. Working on equipemtn without adequate coordination
3. Failing to follow instructions or safety precautions
4. Using unsafe equipment or safety devices
5. Having poor housekeeping practices
Being in a hurry
What are the characteristics of a safety conscious orgainziation?
1. Internal reporting system
2. Set of standards
3. Investigates and resolves incidents or hazards
4. People in the organization know when something is safe or not safe.
What are the steps in a risk assessment
1. Make an assessment of the Probability, severity and exposure of the situation.
2. Determine whether risk is acceptable or not.
3. make decisions or take actions that: eliminate, reduces or cancels the risk
Formula for a hazard and a risk assessment
Matrix number X Exposure Level = risk priority

Lower the overall number the greater the risk.
Exposure definitions
1. high - >50% Many events
2. Medium - 21%-50% opportunity for several events
3. Low 0%-20% no or few opportunities.
Severity definitions
1. Catastrophic - Death, loss of equipment, heavy financial loss
2. Critical - Severe injury, major damage, very costly
3. Marginal - Minor injury, minor damage, costly
4. Negligible - No injury, no damage, no cost
Probability Definitions
1. Frequently - Likely to occur
2. Probable - Will occur several times in the life of the operations
3. Occasional - Likely to occur
4. Remote - Unlikely to occur
5. Improbable - So unlikely, assume it may not occur.
What are the three conponents of risk
1. Probability
2. Severity
3. Exposure
What are the 2 definitions of risk
1. Probability that something will happen.
2. Consequence of accepting the existence of a hazard
What are the 4 categories of risk?
1. Informed Risk
2. Uniformed Risk
3. Benefit-driven risk
4. Pointless risk
why are policies and procedures established?
To eliminate or minimize risk
What 4 areas does risk threaten?
1. Assets(insurance)
2. Income (finances)
3. Legal Liability
4. Operaitons
What stepsshould be taken to prevent accidents?
1. Discovery of hazards
2. Evaluating the hazards
3. Formulate proposals to eliminate/avoid hazards
4. Notification or reporting of hazards to others
5. Monitor the response
6. Record and measure the results
7. Promotion of safety.
Risk management involves what 6 items?
1. Managing and conserving assets
2. Minimizing exposure to losses
3. Detecting hazards before they
Define Risk managment
1.Managing and conserving assets
2. Minimize exposure to loses
3. Detecting hazards before they lead to loses
4. Accurately assessing those hazards
5. Making proper decisions
6. Taking appropiate actions
Definition of Unsafe
1. Risk is unacceptable
2. How equipment is used can result in damage or loss
Definition of Usafe
1. Resources are preserved
2. Free from hazard
3. Costs are controlled
4. Risk is acceptable
Definition of an incident
An occurence or event that did not result in an accident, but either affects or could affect the safety of the operation
Definition of an accident
An occurence of a fatal or serious injury to a person(s)or loss of equipment
Definition of a hazard
A condition, event or circumstance which could induce an accident
4 Categories of hazards
1. Liveware (people)
2. hardware (machines, equipment)
3. Environment
4. Software (procedures, policies)
3 things to help preventforming the links in a chain of events leading to an accident/incident
1. Proper design of a component or system
2. Safeguards put into place
3. An employees correct safety decisions and actions
An accident is not caused by a single event but a ________
chain of events.
Accidents result in:
1. loss of vital resources
2. Compromise other safety measures
Definition of resources
1. People
2. Equipment
3. Time
4. Financial cost
4 types of FAA corrective actions
1. Letter of correction (LOC)
2. Notice of Investigation (NOI)
3. Notice of Violation (NOV)
4. Fines (Federal Funding)
what are the 4 steps to take when an discrepancy is observed?
1. Determine the cause
2. Take prompt corrective action
3. Initiate follow-up
4. Conduct additional inspections if necessary
FAR part 139 Applies to:
1. Scheduled air carrier aircraft with more than 9 seats.
2. Unscheduled air carrier aircraft with more than 31 seats.
When unsatisfactory conditions are found they must be reported and corrected using
The individual airports approved procedures and ACM.
Define informed risk
A situation in which a person discovering the hazard knows and understands the probability and consequences.
Define uninformed risk
a situation where the individual either does not know or understand what may happen or does not know that something actually poses a hazard or threat.
Define a benefit-driven risk
where proper assesement and evaluation of the risk has been made and a decision has been made to accept the risks because the benefit to be derived in conducting the opeations far outweighs the risks.
Define pointless risk
a risk that is taken when the hazards and consequences are either known or not known, but the risk is taken anyway, perhaps because of some perceived benefit to be derived from it.
Components of risk
1. probability of an occurence of an event
2. Degree or severity of the accident were it to occur.
3. the number of times or oppotunities that the event could happen over a period of time.
Changes of part 139 were due to:
1. Changes in aircraft technology and operations
2. Effects of deregulations
3. Policy of one level of safety( no more limited certificated airports)
4. Airports served by aircraft with 10-30 seats.
Primary objective of FAR Part 139
Ensure the safety of air transportation.
Regulatory purpose of FAR Part 139
1. Prevent Accidents
2. Mitigate fatalities and injuries
FAR 119
Certification of air carriers and commercial operations
FAR 91
Private operation of aircraft that are not commercial in nature
FAR 121
Scheduled air carrier
FAR 125
Unscheduled air carrier with more that 60 seats
FAR 129
Foreign air carrier operations
FAR 135
On demand, unscheduled air carriers under 60 seats
FAR 380
Public charter operations
Definition of scheduled
Has advanced publication of:
1. depart time
2. Departure time
3. Arrival Location
4. Operations from one certficated airport to another
Definition of a public charter FAR 380
Performed by one or more direct air carrier that is arranged and sponsored by a charter operation.
What is the maximum number of flights per week a charter can perform under FAR 380 without requiring a 121 certificate?
4
Definition of an Operation
1. Takeoff, landing or approach
2. 15 minutes before and 15 minutes after scheduled time
3. Part 135 or Part 121
4. More that 9 seats or more that 7,500 MTOW
Definition of a large Aircraft
designed with more than 31 seats
Definition of a small aircraft
more than 9 seats but less than 31
Airports must be certificated if they:
1. Scheduled and unscheduled passenger operations of an air carrier with aircraft having a seating capacity of more than 30 pax or;
2. Scheduled passenger operations with aircraft having a seating capacity of more than 9 but less that 31 seats
Public charters are regulated by:
DOT
Defintion of a direct air carrier operation
A certifcated domestic or foreign air carrier, or air taxi operator or commuter air carrier that directly engages in the the operation of an aircraft under a certificate, permit or exemption issued by the DOT
A driect air carrier has control over________ performed in providing that transportation
operational functions
Definition of an indirect air carrier
Any person (individual or corporation) who engages in the services of a direct air carrier intransportation of passegners and baggage. The person then specifies destination but does not issue tickets.
Defintion of a domestic air carrier
scheduled air carrier operations conducted by a person operating aircraft with more than 9 seats or a payload capacity of more than 7,500 pounds.
Definition of a flag type carrier
Same distinctions as a domestic carrierbut the aircraft flies to and from an airport oustide the U.S. and its territories.
Supplemental air carrier
common carraige operation for compensation or hire conducted ina domestic or flag operation, but hte departure time and location and arrival are specifically negotiated witht the custoemr or customers representative.
Definition of a commuter operation
1. Certificated under FAR Part 135
2. Piston or turbo-prop
3. >7,500 MTOW
4. 9 seats or less
Defintion of a Charter Flight (On-demand and Un-scheduled
Operated under the terms of a charter contract between a direct air carrier and its customer.
On-demand and Unscheduled operations do not include
1. Scheduled air transport
2. Scheduled foreign air transport
3. Non- scheduled cargo
sold on an individually ticketd or individually waybilled basis.
When must an airport have an ACM
wehn it is served by an passenger aircraft with more then 9 seats.
Purpose of the ACM
1. Show how the airport complies with FAA safety standards
2. Prevent accidnets and mitigate fatalities and injuries
Intent of the ACM
1. Provide how an airport will comply with FAA standards.
2. Operate and maintain in accordance with minimum standards
When must an airport comply with FAA Standards
1. When listed in the ACM
2. When obligated by federal funding.
Where can standards & characteristics be found?
1. AMP
2. ALP
3. ACM
4. NCM or environmental plans
5. AC 5300/13
ACM serves what purpose
1.A bridge between general FAA requirement and specific needs and applications at each airport.
2. ID how facilites, equip. & operations will be inspected, repaired and operated at each airport.
3. places the responsibility for complying with FAA standaards on airport management.
ACM certifies that
1. Airport operations are safe
2. Facilites are appropiate for the type of operation.
3. Managment is qualified and competent to manage the sfaety aspects of the airport.
What two levels of approval are needed for the ACM
1. Airport signature
2. FAA signature
ACM contains
1. Procedures
2. Equipment Description
3. Responsibility assignments
4. Other infomration for compliance
Regulations intent is outlined in (means to comply)
1. AC's
2. Other supplemental info. (CertAlerts, Tech orders)
3. FAA Regional or local ADO
Table C FAR part 139
Subpart A - Application and Definitions
Subpart B - Limitations, exemptions, deviations
Subpart C - ACM,Content, procdeures and assignment of responsibility
Most accidents could have been prevented but safety measures were
1. Inadequate
2. circumvented
3. Ignored
Goal of risk management is to:
Move people from the uninformed category of risk to the informed category of risk
Definition of a limitation
Restrict operations for a specific reason
Definition of an Exemption
a legal document granting an airport relief from a requirement of PARt 139
Reason for FAA 139 Exemption
If requirement was too costly, burdensome, or impractical.
Definition of a deviation
requires notification within 14 days to the ADO.
When can you deviate from the Standards
in the event of an emergency.
FAR part 139 Subpart D covers
regulatory requirements of 139 - the ones and airport must comply with as part of the ACM.
Personel training records must be kept for
24 months
Joint-use Airports must comply with Part 139 where
Where air carrier operate
Shared-use airports must comply with Part 139 where
the areas available to air carriers event though it is owned by the government.
Definition of the Safety Area
a defined area comprised of either a runway or taxiway and the surrounding surfacesthat is prepared or suitable for reducing the risk of damage to aircraft in the event of an undershoot, overshoot,or excurions from the runway or the unitentional depature from the taxiway.