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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
movement of appendage away from midline of body
Activities of Daily Living
self care activities including bathing, grooming, dressing, eating, toileting and bowel and bladder care.
To move body parts towards the body.
permanently immobile joints
decrease in size/deteriorate
depends on the interrelationship of the center of gravity, the line of gravity, and the base of support
Base Support
the foundation on which the body rests
Body Alignment
assessment includes an inspection of the client standing; the purpose is to identify normal developmental variations in posture; learning needs;
Factors contributing to poor posture are fatigue or low self-esteem, muscle weakness or other motor impairments.
Center of Gravity
the point at which all of the body’s mass is centered
permanent shortening of the muscle
bones depleted of calcium
Disuse Syndrome
is decreased activity resulting from inadequate balance between oxygen supply and demand associated with decrease cardiac output and obesity
turning the sole of the foot by turning the ankle outward
Increasing the angle of the joint
without muscle tone
Foot board
a flat panel often made of plastic or wood. It keeps the feet in dorsiflexion to prevent plantar flexion.
rubbing, the force that opposes motion
the way a person walks
turning the sole of the foot inward by moving the ankle joint
Isometric Exercises
tensing of a muscle against an immovable outer resistance that does not change muscle length or produce joint motion
Isotonic Exercise
exercise in which muscle tension is constant and the muscle shortens to produce muscle contraction an active movement (i.e. pushup)
ability to move about freely, easily and purposefully in the environment
Orthopneic position
– a sitting position that relieves respiratory difficulty; the client leans over and is supported by an overbed table across the lap
Orthostatic Hypotension
decrease in blood pressure related to positional or postural changes from lying to sitting or standing positions
Shearing Force
– a combination of friction and pressure that when applied to the skin results in damage to the blood vessels and tissues
moving the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces upward when held in front of the body
describing the sudden prolonged involuntary muscle contractions of clients with damage to the central nervous system
Trendelenburg position
(bed position) head of bed is lowered and the foot raised in a straight incline
Trochanter roll
A trochanter roll is devised by rolling a bath blanket into a shape about 12-14 inches in length. The roll should be just long enough to reach from above the hip to above the knee. The trochanter roll prevents external rotation of the hip.
Valsalva maneuver
forceful exhalation against a closed glottis which increases intrathoracic pressure and thus interferes with venous blood return to the heart
Factors affecting body alignment
The factors are growth and development, physical health, mental health, nutrition, personal values and attitudes, and certain external factors.
Identify the major reasons for client immobility
People who have inactive lifestyles or who are faced with inactivity because of illness or injury are at risk for many problems that can affect major body systems.
Identify the benefits of bed rest
Bed rest may be the therapeutic choice to reduce edema, to reduce metabolic and oxygen needs, to promote tissue repair or to decrease pain.
What is the physiologic response of prolonged immobility to the
Musculoskeletal System:
Disuse osteoporosis –
Disuse atrophy –
Contractures –
Stiffness and pain in the joints –
Page 1068
What is the physiologic response of prolonged immobility to the Cardiovascular System:
Page 1068
Diminished Cardiac Reserve
Increased use of Valsalva Maneuver
Ortostatic Hypotension
Venus Vasodilation and stasis
Dependent Edema (swelling)
What is the physiologic response of prolonged immobility to the Respiratory System:
Page 1069
Decreased Respiratory Movement
Pooling of Respiratory Secretions
Atelectasis (collapse of lung or lobe)
Hypostatic Pneumonia
What is the physiologic response of prolonged immobility to the Metabolic System:
Page 1070
Decrease metabolic rate
Negative nitrogen balance (depleted protien)
Negative Calcium Balance
What is the physiologic response of prolonged immobility to the Urinary System:
Page: 1070
Urinary Stasis
Renal Calculi (kidney stones)
Urinary Retention
Urinary Infection (UTI)
What is the physiologic response of prolonged immobility to the GI System:
Page 1071
What is the physiologic response of prolonged immobility to the Integumantary System (skin):
Page 1071
Reduced Skin Turgor (elasicity)
Skin Breakdown
What is the physiologic response of prolonged immobility to the Psychoneurologic system:
Page 1071
Time perception
Problem Solving
Decision Making
all deteriorate
Identify four NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association) diagnostic labels for activity and exercise problems/intolerance:
Page 1074
1. short of breath when walking at regular pace/ level ground indefinitely
2. Short of breath after only one city block/ level ground
3. SOB after only 50 feet on level ground
4. Dyspnea and fatigue at rest
decreasing angle of joint
Exagerated concavity of lumbar region
Excessive convex curvature of thoracic spine