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37 Cards in this Set

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What is Sigmund Freud known for?
Psychoanalytic Theories
What were the main components of Freud's Psychoanalytic Theories?
* Id
* Super Ego
* Ego
Which two theorists are known for their Developmental Theories?
* Erik Erikson
* Jean Piaget
What is the prime focus of Erikson's Developmental Theory?
Psychosocial stages
What is the prime focus of Piaget's Developmental Theory?
Cognitive stages
List Erikson's Psychosocial Stages:
* Trust vs. Mistrust (infant)
* Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (toddler)
* Initiative vs. guilt (preschool)
* Industry vs. inferiority (school age)
* Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence)
* Intimacy vs. isolation (young adult)
* Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adult)
* Ego integrity vs. despair (maturity)
According to Freud, what is the "conscious?"
perceptions, thoughts and emotions that exist in a person's awareness
(examples: being aware of happy feelings or thinking about a loved one)
According to Freud, what is the "preconscious?"
Thoughts and emotions that are not currently in a person's awareness, but he or she can recall them with some effort
(example: an adult remembering what he or she did as a child)
According to Freud, what is the "unconscious?"
The realm of thoughts and feelings that motivate a person, even though he or she is totally unaware of them.
Which of Freud's 3 levels of awareness includes most defense mechanisms?
The unconscious
List Jean Piaget's cognitive stages of development:
1. Sensorimotor: birth to 2 yrs.
2. Preoperational: 2-6 yrs.
3. Concrete Operations: 6-12 yrs.
4. Formal Operations: 12-15 yrs.
List Freud's developmental stages:
* Oral: birth-18 months
* Anal: 18-36 months
* Phallic/oedipal: 3-5 yrs.
* Latency: 5-11 or 13 yrs.
* Genital: 11-13 yrs.
Who was the first psychological theorist to refer to a patient as a "client?"
Carl Rogers
Which two theorists are known for their "Humanistic Theories?"
* Carl Rogers
* Abraham Maslow
Which theorist focused on "client-centered therapy?"
Carl Rogers
Which theorist focused on the "hierarchy of needs?"
Abraham Maslow
Which two theorists are known for their Behavioral Theories?
* Ivan Pavlov
* B.F. Skinner
Which theorist focused on behavior modification?
B.F. Skinner
Which theorist focused on the conditioned response?
Ivan Pavlov
Skinner's behavior modification theory is known for what principle?
positive and negative reinforcement
Which theorists are known for their "Existential Theories?"
* Albert Ellis
* Viktor Frankl
* Frederick Perls
* William Glasser
Frederick Perls is known for what type of therapy ?
Gestalt Therapy
What is involved in Gestalt therapy?
Focusing on the "here & now;" writing journals, etc.
William Glasser is known for what type of therapy?
Reality therapy
What is the guiding principle of Glasser's Reality Therapy?
The patient is responsible for his/her own actions, and should not blame others for any outcomes.
Albert Ellis is known for what type of therapy?
Rational emotive therapy
Viktor Frankl is known for what type of therapy?
Logotherapy
What is the central theme of Frankl's Logotherapy?
The search for meaning
Hildegard Peplau was known for what type of therapy?
Therapeutic Nurse-Patient Therapy
Which theorist is known for "Milieu" (group) therapy?
Harry Stack Sullivan
What are the 4 phases of Peplau's Therapeutic Nurse-Patient Therapy?
1. Orientation phase
2. Identification phase
3. Exploitation phase
4. Resolution phase
What are the 6 roles of the psychiatric nurse, according to Peplau?
1. Stranger
2. Resource person
3. Teacher
4. Leader
5. Surrogate
6. Counselor
What is a psychosocial assessment?
a mental status examination
What are the 3 key points in a psychosocial assessment?
1. current emotional state
2. mental capacity
3. behavior function
What are the 4 levels of anxiety, according to Peplau?
* Mild: this can be positive; strengthens focus
* Moderate: perceptual field is decreased
* Severe: physiological changes take place (sweating, increased HR, etc.)
* Panic: loss of rational thought (hallucinations, loss of mobility, etc.)
Define "therapeutic communication:"
An interpersonal interaction between the nurse and client during which the nurse focuses on the client's specific needs to promote an effective exchange of information (Videbeck, p.112)
List the nurse's goals in caring for a psychiatric patient:
* Establishing rapport
* Active listening: gaining the client's perspective
* Exploring the client's thoughts & feelings
* Guiding the client in problem-solving