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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Origin- (where muscle begins) first 3-4 lumbar vertebrae, lower tip of sternum, cartalidge of ribs 7-12
(where muscle begins, attached to none moving object)
Course – upward and toward middle
Insertion – central tendon (top uppermost of the diaphragm is attached to this)
(attached to bone that is moving)
Function – contraction of muscles pulls central tendon downward toward the abdominal cavity
primary muscle of inhaliation
dome shaped
quiet inhalation (80-90% of muscle activity)
external intercoastals
11 pairs
Origin – lower order of each rib (runs between each one of ribs)
Course – down and forward
Insertion – upper border of rib (top of the rib below)
Function – if rib 1 is fixed then they pull ribs closer together and outward
Rib one has to be held by the Clavical and scapula in order for these muscles to work
pectoralis major
Origin – humerus (upper bone of the arm)
Course- fans out across thorax
Insertion – clavicle and (inferior part connects to) sternum, cartilaginous portion of ribs
Function – elevates ribs 2 - 5
pectoralis minor
Origin – ant. Scapula
Course – downward and medially
Insertion – ribs 2-5
Function – may act to raise ribs it attaches to, if pectoral girdle is fixed
Serratus Anterior
Origin – c3-c6
Course – downwards and forwards
Insertion – upper 9 ribs
Function – if scapula is fixed, it can raise first 9 ribs
Subclavius (under clavical)
Origin – interior surface of clavicle
Course – downward and medially
Insertion – anterior surface of 1st rib
Function – fixator muscle – fixes the 1st rib so external intercostals can pull up on rib cage
Levatores Costarum
Origin – vertebral column
Course – downward and laternal
Insertion – superior/posterior surface of ribs immediately below the vertebrae they originate from
Function – assists in lifting the ribs
Serratus posterior superior
High back muscle
Origin – C7 –T3
Course – downward and lateral
Insertion – lower spine and ribs
Function – contraction of muscle elevates ribs 2-5
Latissimus Dorsi
Origin – humerus
Course – downward and medial
Insertion – lower spine and lower ribs
Function – if arm is fixed, the costal fibers may pull up on rib cage
Illiocostalis Cervicus
Origin – c4 -6
Course – downward
Intersection – upper 6 ribs
Function lifts up the upper 6 ribs
Sternocleidomastoid (sternum clavical mastoid process)
Origin – mastoid process of temporal lobe
Course – downward
Insertion – 2 points
Clavicular head – to superior surface of clavicle
Sternal head – to manubrium of sternum (left and right)
Function – main function is to rotate head, but if the head is fixed, then the thorax can be pulled up
Origin - lower cervical vertebrae (C3-C6)
Course – downward
Insertion – 1st and 2nd ribs (fixator muscle for fib one...holds it in place)
Function – serves to fix upper ribs so intercostals can pull whole rib cage upward Contraction can lift 1st and 2nd ribs
3 passive forces of exhalation (quiet breathing)
1. Elastic recoil of the lung tissue (Elasticity)
2. gravity (as the ribs come down they squeeze the lungs a little)
3. untwisting (untorquing) of the costal cartilage
Internal intercoastal muscles
Origin – upper border of ribs 2 thru 12
Course – upwards and medially
Insertion – inferior edge of rib abouve
Function – (1) interosseous portion – contraction shortens distance between ribs and thereby decreases thoracic volume
Origin – 2nd or 3rd rib below where it attaches to
Course – superior and lateral
Insertion – inner surface of ribs – posterior wall
Function – pulls ribs down – aids internal intercoastals
transverse thoracis
Origin- inner surface of lower sternum
Course – superior and lateral
Insertion – ribs 2 – 6
Function – if sternum is fixed, they pull down and decrease thoracic volume
rectus abdominis
Origin – pubic bone
Course – upward
Insertion – sternuma nd costal cartilages of ribs 5 thru 7
Function – (1) pulls downward on sternum (2) compresses abdomen
transverse abdominis

(to cross; going across)
Origin – lower 6 ribs
Course – horizontal around abdomen
Insertion – abdominal aporneurosis ( a tendenous sheath which covers the rectus abdominis)
Functional – compress abdomen
internal abdominal oblique
Origin – anterior half of iliac crest
Course – toward midline
Insertion – abdominal apneurosis and coastal cartilages of lower 3 ribs
Function – (1) compression of abdominal contents pushes up on diaphragm (2) may pull down on lower three ribs
external abdominal oblique
Origin – lower 8 ribs
Course – toward midline
Insertion – iliac crest and abdominal aponeurosis
Function – compress abdomen, draws lower ribs down
serratus posterior inferior
Origin – last 2 thoratic and first 2 lumbar vertebrae
Course – upward and lateral
Insertion – posteror of bottom 4 ribs
Function – (1) pulls down lower 4 ribs (2) for inhalation – may act as a fixator for ribs when the diaphragm contracts
Quadratus lumborum
Origin – top of iliac crest
Course – upward
Insertion – 12th rib and upper 4 lumbar vertebrae (L1- L4)
Function – pulls rib 12 downward
(underneath latissimus dorsi)
back muscles
Latissimus dorsi
Serratus posterior inferior
quadratus lumborum
Abdominal muscles
(major in exhalation)
Rectus Abdominis
Transvverse Abdominis
Internal Abdominal Oblique
External abdominal oblique
Chest Muscles
Internal intercoastal muscles
Transverse thoracis
Neck Muscles
accessory muscles of inhalation
Sternocleido Mastoid
Back Muscles
accessory muscles
Levatores Costarum
Serratus Posterior Superior
Latissimus Dorsi
Illiocostalis Cervicus
Front Muscles
accessory muscles
Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor
Serratus Anterior
Subclavius (under clavical)
Muscles of Inhalation
External Intercoastals
Boyle's Law
volume and pressure are inversely related
Esohageal Hiatus

Foramen Vena Cava
Holes in the diaphragm
Which muscles fixate rib 1?
Egressive air flow
Ingressive air flow
Respiratory system consists of
chest wall
pulmanary system
Thoracic vertebrae
post. Margin
(breast bone)
Xiphoid process
the point of attachment for the clavical
Main part of the sternum
Xiphoid process
little part of bone on the bottom of the sternum
12 pair
true ribs (1 - 7)
false ribs (8 - 10)
floating ribs (11 & 12)
Pectoral Girdle
True Ribs
1 - 7
attach to the sternum thru cartalidge
False Ribs
8 - 10
connect to sternum throu
Floating ribs
11 & 12
do not attach to sternum
Anything in front of _______ is considered abdomen
Lumbar Vertibrae
Pulmonary system
Tubes in the lungs, lunges and all tubes that connect the lungs to the outside air
runs below larynx and into chest cavity

horseshoe shaped cartalidge in back..elastic cartalidge in between
Trachea splits into two other tubes called ________
Two primary -- left and right main bronchi
left lung divides out into two secondary
right branches into 3 secondary
Mainstream Bronchi
Left and right secondary bronchi

feed each one of the five indipendant lobes in the lungs
plural lining
pulmonary pleura
costal pleura
plural linkage
pulmonary pleura
smooth lines
costal pleura
line the inside of the rib cage
Plural Linkage
two pleura are stuck together ny the negitive pressure between them
Basic components of ribs
head (attaches to spine)
shaft of rib
patent airway
open airway
most open if you tip your head back a little
Respiratory cycle
One full inhalation
Forced respiration
Quiet resperation
40% - 60% balance
Resting expiratory level
Point where all of the muscles are relaxed...when forces of expiration are all done
Vital Capacity
all of the air you could breathe in and out
male 4 -5 liters
female 3 - 4 liters
Tidal Volume
Volume of air actually used
Inspiratory reserve
amount of air you could breathe in beyond a given peak tidal volume...up to the max of your vital capacity
Expiratory reserve
the amount of air exhaled at the lower peak or tidal volume
Residual volume
volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum exhalation

20% of vital capacity
Total lung volume
vital capacity plus the residual volume
4 liters + 20%