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150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where is the heart located?
situated snugly between the lungs and the mediastinum
What is the size of the heart?
about the size of a clenched fist
What is the shape of the heart?
inverted cone
Where is the apex pointed?
down and tilted to the left
Where is the base pointed?
its flat end is pointed towards the left shoulder
a double walled sac that covers the heart
Name the parts of the Pericardium
Fibrous Pericardium, Serious Pericardium, and Pericardial Cavity
Where is the Fibrous Pericardium located on the heart?
the loose outter layer
What is the function of the Fibrous Pericardium?
protects the heart, anchors it to it's surrounding structures, and prevents the heart from over filling
Where is the Serious Pericardium located?
it is the inner membrane
Name the divisions of the Serious Pericardium
Parietal Layer and the Visceral Layer
Parietal Layer
lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
Visceral Layer
the layer next to the heart itself
Whats another name for the Visceral Layer
Pericardial Cavity
the space between the parietal and viscearal layers
What does the Pericardial Cavity contain?
a film of serous fluid
Serous Fluid
lubricates layers of the heart
Name the walls of the heart
Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
the outtermost layer
middle layer composed mainly of cardiac muscle
What is the Myocardium responsible for?
inner layer that lines the cavities of the heart and blood vessels and covers the valves
What type of cells are Endocardium composed of?
squamous epithelium
Name the chambers of the heart
atria and ventricles
What does the atria do?
act as receiving chambers
external flaps covering the atria
Name the muscle lining the atria chambers
pectinate muscle
What do the ventricles act as?
distribution chambers
What does the left ventricle distribute?
blood to the body
What does the right ventricle distribute?
blood to the near by lungs
Which of the ventricles are bigger?
What is the muscle lining the ventricles called?
trabeculae carnae
What are the artias seperated by?
interatrial septum
What is the shallow bearing inbetween the artias?
fossa ovalis
What seperates the right and left ventricles?
interventricular septum
What do the valves of the heart prevent?
Name the valves of the heart
Atrioventricular Valves and Semilunar Valves
Name the parts of the Atrioventricular Valves
Tricuspid, Bicuspid, Chordae Tendineae, Papillary Muscles
seperates the right atria from the right ventricle
seperates the left atria from the left ventricle
What is another name for Bicuspid?
Chordae Tendineae
prevents the Atrioventricular Valves from inverting
Papillary Muscles
anchor the chordae tendineae so that they are able to prevent inversion of the AV valves
Name the types of Semilunar Valves
Pulminary Semilunar and Aortic Semilunar
Pulminary Semilunar
separates the right ventricle from the pulminary trunk
Aortic Semilunar
valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta
What do Semilunar Valves look like?
make of three crescent shaped, pocket like cusps
Name the characteristics of Cardiac Muscle
involuntary, striated, shorty branched cells, one nuclei, intercalated discs with gap junctions and desosomes
What allows cardiac muscle to contract as a unit?
intercalated discs
Functional Syncytium
the heart beats as one coordinated unit
1% of cardiac cells can initiate their own depolarization
Pulmonary Circulation
refers to deoxygenated blood going through the right side of the heart towards the pulmonary trunk and lungs
Systemic Circulation
refers to the oxygenated blood going through the left side of the heart towards the aorta and to the body
Name the deoxygenated blood flow through the Pulmonary Circulation
Right Atrium, Tricuspid Valve, Right Ventricle, Pulminary Semilunar Valve, Pulminary Trunk, Lungs
Where does the deoxygenated blood come from before flowing in the Pulminary Circulation?
Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, Coronary Sinus
After flowing through the Pulminary Circulation, how does the oxygenated blood get back to the heart?
by the pulminary veins
Name the route of Systemic Circulation
Pulminary viens drain into the left atrium, Bicuspid valve, Left Ventricle, Aortic Semilunar Valve, Aorta, Body
What is the largest Artery?
Coronary Circulation
the blood circulation that feeds the heart
Name the arteries of the coronary circulation
Left coronary artery and right coronary artery
What is the Left coronary artery composed of?
Anterior Interventricular Artery and Circumflex Artery
What is the Right Coronary Artery composed of?
Posterior Interventricular Artery
Name the veins that drain into the heart
Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, Coronary Sinus, Great Middle and small cardiac viens
Superior Vena Cava
drains deoxgenated blood from all tissues above the diaphragm to the right atrium
Inferior Vena Cava
drains deoxygenated blood fromm all tissues below the diaphragm to the right atrium
Great Middle and Small Vena Cava Vien
drains deoxygenated blood from the myocardium to the coronary sinus
Coronary Circulation
drains deoxygenated blood from the heart tissues to the right artium
Where is the Great Cardiac Vien located?
under the Anterior Interventricular Artery
Where is the Small Cardiac Vien located?
parallel to the marginal artery
Where is the Middle Cardiac Vien located?
parallel to the posterior Interventricular artery
Name the parts of the Intrinsic Conduction System
Sinoatrial Node, Atriobentricular Node, Bundle of His, Right and Left Bundle Branches, Purkinje fibers
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
What does the SA do?
it regulates the pace of the heart by generating impulses at a rate of sinus rhythm
Sinus Rhythm
75 times per sec
Where is the SA located?
in the right atrium
Where is the Atrioventricular Node located?
in the lower portion of the right atrium
What does the AV do?
recieves impulses from the SA node and relays them to the AV bundles
whats another name for the AV bundles
Bundle of His
Where is the Bundle of His located?
in the interatrial septum
What does the Bundle of His do?
transmits the impulse to the left and right bundle branches which extend throught the interventriular septum
Where does the Right and Left Bundle course along?
the interventricular septum toward the heart apex
Where does the Purkinje fibers send their impulse to?
from cell to cell causing depolarization
What directly stimulates cardiac muscle cells of the ventricles?
Purkinje fibers
How long does it take for the impulse to travel from the SA to the depolarization area?
.22 secs
Name the parts of the extrinsic conduction system
Sympathetic System and the Parasympathetic system
What is the center of the Extrinsic conduction system?
medulla Oblongata
What happens to the sympathetic nervous system in the Extrinsic System?
increases both the rate and force of heartbeat
How does the Sympathetic Nervous System speed up the heart beat?
by impulse traveling through the cardiac accelerator nerves
What happens to the Parasympathetic Nervous System in the Extrinsic System?
system slows the heart by impulse of the vagus nerve
measures electrical impulses
What are the types of deflection waves in the EKG?
P Wave QRS Wave and the T Wave
P Wave
atrial depolarization results from impulses delivered by the SA node
QRS Wave
ventricular depolarization which precedes ventricular contraction.
T Wave
ventricular repolarization
When does Atrial repolarization occur?
during the QRS Wave
to listen
What is the basic rhythm
lub-dub pause lub-dub pause
What does the first pause represent?
the quiescent period
What does the lub stand for?
the AV valves closing
What does the -dub stand for
the semilunar valves closing
Heart Murmurs
abnormal sounds
Name the parts of the cardiac cycle
systole and diastole
the contraction phase
the relaxation phase
How long does the cardiac cycle last?
.8 secs
What is a normal heart rate?
75 beats per min
Name the sequence of the cardiac cycle
Ventricular Filling, Ventricular Systole, Isovolumetric Relaxation
Ventricular Filling
has two parts of ventricular flowing and artial contration
ventricular flowing
blood flows through the atria and the AV valves open allowing blood into the ventricles
atrial contraction
The atrial then undergo systole and force the remainder of the blood into the ventricles
What is the pressure like in Ventricular Filling?
low and the heart is passive
Name the parts of the Ventricular Systole
isovolumetric contraction phase and ventricular ejection phase
When are all valves shut during the Ventricular Systole?
during the Isovolumetric Contraction Phase
Ventricular Ejection Phase
When the pressure in the chamber rises to levels higher than the pressure in the arteries, blood forces the semilunar valves open and blood flows into the arteries
Isovolumetric Relaxation Period
The ventricles relax and blood in the arteries begins to backflow toward the heart, closing the Semilunar valves. For a split second all valves are once again closed
Quiescent Period
Pressure within the chambers is now the same for a brief moment and the entire heart is relaxed
Cardiac Output
the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle each minute
How is cardiac output calculated?
the stroke volume times the Heart Rate
Stroke volume
the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle per beat
Heart Rate
the number of beats per min
Name some factors influencing Stroke Volume
Preload, Contractility, Afterload
how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole due to the amount of stretch
how much contractile strength is achieved at a given muscle length
What is increased contractility due to?
a greater Ca2+ influx
What is enhanced contractility a result of?
in the ejection of more blood (greater SV)
pressure needed before ventricle ejection occurs (force needed to overcome pressure on valves)
Influencing factors of Heart Rate is..
Autonomic System, Hormones, Age, Fitness, Gender, Temperature, Ion Concentrations, Blood Pressure
Name the hormones the influence the heart
epinephrine/norephrine, acetylcholine, thyroxine
What are ion concentrations monitored by?
What is blood pressure monitored by?
Name some heart murmur disorders
stenosis, incometent valve, mitral valve prolapse
valve flaps become stiff and narrowed thereby restricting normal blood flow
incompetant valve
valves fail to close properly resulting in a backflow of blood
Mitral Valve Prolapse
affects up to 1% of the population; appears to be genetic; chordae tendineae are abnormal and/or the papillary muscle malfunction resulting in the flaps becoming inverted.
What can attack the valve?
Rheumatic Fever and Streptococcus
abnormal heart rhythms
=more than 100 beats per minute
2. Bradycardia
=less than 60 beats per minute
3. Fibrillation
uncoordinated heartbeat or quivering
4. Heart block
blockage in the AV node
5. Asystole
no heart contraction
6. Heart palpitation
unusually strong, fast, or irregular heartbeat so that the person is aware of it
Myocardial Infarction
heart attack
tissue death due to loss of blood supply
decreased blood flow due to hypoxia
Angina pectoralis
chest pain due to heart problem
inflammation of the pericardium
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
Cardiac tamponade
accumulation of fluid within the pericardium preventing the heart from pumping
inflammation of the heart muscle