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97 Cards in this Set

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any area where two or more bones meet
what is another name for a joint?
what are joints classified on?
structure and function
What are the structural classifications?
Fibrous joints, Cartilaginous joints, Synovial Joints
Fibrous joints
composed of fibrous tissue with no cavity
Cartilaginous joints
articualting bones are united by cartilage and no cavity is present
Synovial joints
articular bones that are seperated by a fluid filled joint cavity
Name the functional classifications
Synarthroses, Amphiarthroses, Diarthroses
immovable joints
Name some examples of Synarthroses
sternocoastal and tibiofibular
slightly moveable joints
Name some examples of Amphiarthroses
vertebral bodies and pubic bones
freely moveable joints
Name some examples of Diarthroses
most apendicular joints
Name the characteristics of fibrous joints
joined by a fibrous tissue, no cavity, most immoveable and some are slightly movable
What are the types of fibrous bones?
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
synarthroses; contain dense fibrous connective tissue until adulthood when they ossify.
What are sutures called when they ossify?
What is an example of a suture?
bones are connected by a fillament sheet or cord
Where are fibers the longest and are more resilient?
What are some examples of Syndesmoses?
tibiofibluar (synarthroses) and radiounlar (amphiarthroses)
"peg in socket" articulation of tooth with body alveolar surface; synarthroses
periodontal ligament
fibrous connection; found in gomphoses
What are the characteristics of Cartilaginous joints?
articulating cartilages united by a cartilage and they lack a joint cavity
What are the main types if cartilginous joints?
Synochondroses and Symphyses
hyaline cartilage united joines at a synchondroses which are temporary joints later replaced and become synarthroses
What are some examples of synchondroses?
Epiphyseal plate and costal cartilage of the first rib to the manubrium of the sternum
fibrocartilage covered by hyaline cartilage; it is compressable, resilient, functionally amphiarthrotic
Name some examples of Synphyses
pubic symphsis and the intervertebral disks
Name some characteristics of synovial joints
seperated by a fluid filled cavity, found in most body joints, diarthroses
Name the distinct features of Synovial skeleton
Articular cartilage, joint cavity, synovial fluid, articlar capsule, Reinforsing ligaments
Articular Cartilage
Hyaline type forms a glassy smooth surface over the opposing ends of bones
Synovial Membrane
found at the end of the Articular cartilage and covers everything that is not hyaline cartliage
Joint cavity
small space containing synovial fluid
Synovial Fluid
Largly derived from blood; has a viscous, egg-white sonsistance; leaks out of cartilage
What makes up Articluar Capsule?
Fibrous Capsule and Synovial membrane
Fibrous Capsule
made of dense regular connective tissue it strengthens the bone so it is not pulled apart
Reinforcing Ligaments
made of dense regular connective tissue strengthening the ligaments
What type of Synovial joints contain fatty pads?
Hip and Knee Joints
Synovial joints that have articluar discs extending inward from the articular capsule and will divide the synovial cavity in two
In Synovial joints there are supportive flattened sacs lined with synovial membrane that are fluid filled
Where are Bursae found?
where ligaments, muscles, and tendons overlie and rub against bone
Tendon Sheathes
Elongated bursae wrapping around tendons
Name the axis of motion on Synovial Joints
Non-axial motion, Uniaxial Motion, Biaxial motion, Multiaxial motion
Non-Axial Motion
Slipping Movements; normally flat
Uniaxial Motion
Movement in one place
Name some examples of Uniaxial Motion
Phalanges, radius/ulna, femur/tibia
Biaxial Motion
Movement in two places
Name some examples of Biaxial Motion
occipital bones/atlas
Multiaxial Motion
Movement in three or more places
Name some examples of Multiaxial Motion
Scapula/Humerus, Coxal Bone/femur
Name the types of motion in synovial joints
Gliding, Angular
another name for Non-axial motion; bones displaced in relation to one another
Name some examples of Gliding
intercarpal, intertarsal and intervertebral
Changing the angle between bones
bending or decreasing the joint angle
Streching or increasing the joint angle
Extending the joint past its normal resting point
pointing toe toward the body
pointing the toe
Lateral Rotation
leg turned out
Medial Rotation
Leg turned in
Moving away from the midline
Moving toward the midline
Conial shape
turing movement of the bone around its own axis
Palm up
Palm Down
Movement of the foot medially; ankle in
Movement of the foot laterally; ankle out
Movement of the mandible forward
Movement of the mandible back in its start position
Lifting a body part superiorily
Moving the elevated part inferiorly
Touching your thum to your other fingers
Plane Joints
articular surface is flat and only allow for short gliding movements; gliding
Hinge joints
cylindrical projection of one bone protrudes into a sleeve or ring composed of bone or ligament; uniaxial
Pivot Joints
rounded end of the bone that protrudes into a a sleeve or ring composed of bone or ligament; uniaxial
Condyloid Joints
Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another (cup) biaxial
Saddle Joints
each articular surface has a concave and convex area; biaxial
Ball in Socket
the shoerical end of one bone articulates with a cup like socket of another bone; multiaxial
Name an example of plane joints
intercarpal and intertarsal
Name an example of Hinge joints
Name an example of Pivot joints
radius to ulna and axis to atlas
Name an example of Condyloid joints
Name an example of Saddle joints
joint of the thumb
Name an example of Ball in socket
shlder and hip bones
streching or tearing of a ligament
bones are forced out of their normal position
partial dislocation
Imnflammation of the Bursa
Inflammatory of degenerative disease of the joint where synocial membranes thicken and a fluid production decreases resulting in friction and pain
degeneratice arthritis as a result of old age or wear and tear
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Autoimmune disease
Gouty Arthritis
uric acid accumulation
inflammation of aynovial membranes