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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What connects bone to bone?
What connects bone to muscle?
What are the 3 functional categories for joints?
1. Synarthrotic - immovable
2. Amphiarthrotic - slightly movable
3. Diarthrotic - freely moveable
What are the 3 structural categories for joints?
1. Fibrous
2. Synovial
3. Cartilaginous
Aside from structure & function, how else can joints be defined?
The type of movement they allow.
Define joint/articulation.
The site where 2 or more bones meet.
What are the 2 main functions of joints?
Give skeleton mobility & hold it together.
What is the weakest part of the skeleton?
The joints.
Where are immovable & slightly movable joints found?
Mostly in the axial skeleton
Are fibrous joints movable?
Are synovial joints movable?
Are cartilaginous joints movable?
Can be rigid or slightly movable.
Do fibrous joints have a joint cavity?
No, they are just joined by fibrou tissue.
What are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
Sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses.
Where do you find sutures?
They only occur between bones of the skull.
What are synostoses?
Former sutures. The fibrous tissue ossifies and the skull bones fuse into a single unit. Synostoses are the 'bony junctions.'
What are syndesmoses?
When bones are connected by ligaments.
What is a gomphosis
A peg-in-socket fibrous joint. Ex - tooth in alveolar socket.
What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
What is a synchondrosis?
A joint united by a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage.

Ex - epiphyseal plates connecting diaphysis & epiphysis regions of long bones.
What are symphyses?
Articular surfaces of bones are covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage, which is fused to an intervening pad/plate of fibrocartilage.

What are synovial joints?
Articulating bones separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity.


All limb joints are synovial.
What are the 5 distinguishing features of synovial joints?
1. Articular cartilage
2. Joint (synovial)cavity
3. Articular capsule
4. Synovial fluid
5. Reinforcing ligaments
What are the "ball bearings" of synovial joints?
Bursae & tendon sheaths.
What is a bunion?
An enlarged bursa at the base of the big toe.
What 3 things is joint stability dependent on?
1. Shape of articular surfaces
2. Number & positioning of ligaments
3. Muscle tone
How much can a ligament stretch before it snaps?
6% of its length.
When ligaments are the major means of bracing a joint, how stable is the joint?
Not very stable b/c ligaments are subject to snapping.
What are the two ends of the muscle, and where are they attached?
The origin is attached to the immovable/less movable bone

The insertion is attached to the movable bone.
What are the 4 ranges of motion allowed by synovial joints?
1. Nonaxial movement - slipping
2. Uniaxial movement - one plane
3. Biaxial movement - 2 planes
4. Multiaxial movement - 3 planes
What are the 3 types of movements allowed by synovial joints?
1. Gliding
2. Angular
3. Rotation
What are the 3 types of synovial movements?
What happens during gliding movements?
They are the simplest movements, also known as "translation." One flat/nearly flat bone glides over another without angulation or rotation.
What happens during angular movements?
They increase or decrease the angle between 2 bones.

Include: flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction & circumduction.
What is flexion?
A bending movement, usually along the sagittal plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together.

Ex - bending the head forward on the chest.
What is extension?
The reverse of flexion.

Movement along the sagittal plane that increases the angle between the articulating bones.

Ex - straightening a flexed neck, elbow, etc.
What is abduction?
Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body, along the frontal plane.

Ex - raising the arm laterally.
What is adduction?
Opposite of abduction.

Movement of a limb toward the body midline.
What is circumduction?
Moving a limb so it describes a cone in space. Actually consists of flexion, abduction, extension & adduction performed in succession.
What is rotation?
The turning of a bone around its own long axis. Can be directed toward or away from the midline.
What is the ulna?
Forearm bone that runs from the tip of the elbow to the little finger side of the wrist.
What is supination?
Rotating the forearm laterally so the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly.
What is pronation?
Rotating the forearm medially so the palm faces posteriorly or inferiorly.

The radius & ulna bones form an x.
Is the hand in supination or pronation in the anatomical position?
What is inversion?
When the sole of the foot turns medially.
What is eversion?
When the sole faces laterally.
What is eversion?
When the sole of the foot faces laterally.
What are protraction & retraction?
Nonangular anterior & posterior movements in a transverse plane.

Ex - mandible is protracted when you jut out your jaw.
What is elevation?
Lifting a body part superiorly
What is depression?
Moving the elevated part inferiorly.
What is opposition?
When you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand.
What are the 6 types of synovial joints?
1. Plane
2. Hinge
3. Pivot
4. Condyloid
5. Saddle
6. Ball & socket joints
What are plane joints?
The articular surfaces are essentially flat.

Ex - intercarpal & intertarsal joints.
What are hinge joints?
When a cylindrical projection of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another. Motion is along a single plane
What are pivot joints?
When the rounded end of one bone protrudes into a sleeve/ring of bone & ligaments of another.

Ex - Shaking your head no.