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218 Cards in this Set

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Neural Plate
thickened ectodermal tissue
Neural Fold
the neural plate that has an invagination
Neural Tube
is formed after the neural fold and is distinct in the fourth week of development
What are organs of the CNS derived from?
neural tube tissue
What forms the quickest after the neural tube is present?
the anterior portion (which later on becomes the brain vesicles)
None
Name the primary brain vesicles
Prosencephalon,
Mesencephalon,
Rhombencephalon
None
Name the secondary vesicles of Prosencephalon
Telencephalon and Diencephalon
What adult structure comes from Telencephalon
Cerebrum (cerebral cortex, white matter, and basal nuclei)
What adult structure comes from Diencephalon
Thalamus, pineal gland, and hypothalamus (diencephalons)
Name the secondary vesicle of Mesencephalon
Mesencephalon
Name the adult structure of Mesencephalon
Brain stem (midbrain)
Name the secondary vesicles of Rhombencephalon
Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
What adult structure comes from Metencephalon
Brain stem (pons) and cerebellum
What adult structure comes from Myelencephalon
Brain stem (medulla oblongata)
Ventricals of the Brain
hollow, fluid-filled chambers
What do the ventricals of the brain contain?
CSF
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
choroid plexus
where CSF is formed
What is CFS absorbed by?
arachnoid villi
What lines the ventricals of the brain?
ependymal cells
Name the ventricals
lateral, third, and fourth
septum pellucidum
thin membrain that seperates the laterals
interventricular foramen
used for communication lines between the laterals and the third
cerebral aqueduct
the tube connecting the third and fourth ventricals
The Ceberal Hemispheres take up how much of the brains total mass
83%
Gyri
elevated ridges the cover the largest and most superior part of the brain
Sulci
seperates the gyri with shallow grooves
Fissures
seperates the gyri with deep grooves
Cerebral Cortex
outter layer of grey matter
What does the Cerebral Cortex associated with?
consciousness
Name the Cerebral Cortex's functional areas
Motor, Sensory, and Association Areas
Motor Area
controls voluntary motor functions
Sensory Areas
provides for conscious awareness of sensations
Association Areas
Integrates all other information
Of the Cerebral Cortex, what is composed of white matter?
Motor and Sensory Areas
Of the Cerebral Cortex, what is composed of grey matter?
Association Areas
Lateralization
Each hemisphere is concerned with the sensory and motor functions of the opposite side of the body
Contra Lateral
Though symmetrical in structure, the two hemispheres are not equal in function
Name the parts of the brain
ventricals,
cerebral hemisphere, diencephalon,
brain stem,
Cerebellum,
Limbic System
None
Name the parts of the Motor Areas in the brain
Primary Motor Cortex,
Premotor Cortex,
Broca's Area, and
Frontal Eye Field
None
Where is the Primary Motor Cortex found?
in the precentral Gyrus of the frontal lobe
Pyrimidal Cells
large neurons
Where are Pyrimidal Cells found?
in the Primary Motor Cortex
What does the Primary Motor Cortex control?
skilled voluntary movements of skeletal muscles
Where do Pyrimidal Cells extend to?
their long axons extend down to the spinal cord
Somatotopy
spacially mapped
What part of the brain is considered Somatotopy?
Primay Motor Cortex
Where is the Premotor Cortex found?
anterior to the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe
What does the Premotor Cortex control?
learned motor skills that are repeated or patterned
What controls phsyically multi-tasking? (ex. Patting your head and rubbing your stomach)
Premotor Cortex
Where is Broca's Area found?
anterior to the lower part of the premotor cortex
What does the Broca's Area control?
motor speech
The Broca's Area is only present in one hemiphere, which one?
most of the time the left
Where is the Frontal Eye Field found?
anterior to the premotor cortex and superoir to the Broca's Area
What does the Frontal Eye Field control?
voluntary eye movments of the eye
Name the parts of the Sensory Area of the Brain
Primary Somatosensory Cortex, Somatosensory Association Cortex,
Visual Area,
Auditory Area,
Olfactory Cortex,
Gustatory Cortex,
Vestibular Cortex
None
Where is the Primary Somatosensory Cortex found?
in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe (immediately behind the primary motor cortex)
What does the Primary Somatosensory Cortex do?
the neurons receive information from the somatic sensory receptors in the skin and the proprioceptors in skeletal muscle
Name an example of Primary Somatosensory Cortex
When you know what part of your body is being touched (spacial Discrimination)
Where is the Somatosensory Association Cortex located?
posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
What does the Somatorsensory Association Cortex do?
it intgrates and analyzes somatic sensory inputs from Primary Somatosensory Cortex to figure out what an item is
Where is the Visual Area located?
in the Occipital Lobes
Name the divisions of the Visual Area
the Primary Visual Cortex and the Visual Association Center
Pimary Visual Cortex
recieves information from retna (color, form, and movement)
Visual Association Center
uses past experiences to determine what a stimuli means (face, flower, ect.)
Where is the Auditory Area found?
in the temporal lobes
Name the parts of the Auditory Area
Primary Auditory Cortex and Auditory Association Area
Primary Auditory Cortex
recieves impulses from the ear
Auditory Association Area
uses past experiences to determine what a stimuli means (scream music thunder, ect.)
Where is the Olfactory Cortex located?
in the frontal and temporal lobe
Where is the Gustatory Cortex found?
in the parietal lobe deep in the temporal lobe
Where is Vestibular Cortex located?
it's hard to tell; near the ear
What is Vestibular Cortex used for?
concious awareness of balance or the position of the head in space
Of the Sensory Area, what sections are chemical based?
Olfactory, Gustatory, Vestibular cortex
Where are the Association Areas located?
in the cerebrum
Name the parts of the Association Areas
Prefrontal Cortex, Gnositc Area, Language Area, and Visceral Association Area
Where is the Prefrontal Cortex located?
in the anterior portions of the frontal lobes
What is the Prefrontal Cortex involved with?
intellect,
complex learning,
planning,
concern, and
conscience,
recall,
personality,
abstract ideas, and
judgement
None
What causes personality disorders?
tumors in the Prefrontal Cortex
Where is the Gnostic Area found?
in an undefined area in the temportal, occipital, and parietal lobes
What is another name for Gnostic Area?
General Interpertation Area
How many Gnostic Areas per hemisphere?
one usually in the left
What does the Gnostic Area do?
recieves information from all sensory association areas and integrates the information to form a single thought or unterstanding of the situation
Where is the Language Area found?
in the left hemisphere
Name the parts of the Language Area
Wernick's Area,
Broca's Area,
Lateral Prefrontal Cortex, and Lateral and Ventral parts of the temporal lobe
None
What does the Wernick's Area do?
pervious thought to be associated with the ability to understand written and spoken language; associated with sounding out familiar words
What does the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex do?
involved in language comprehension and word analysis
Lateral and Ventral Parts of the Temporal Lobe
coordinates auditory and visual aspects of language as when naming objects or reading
Visceral Association Area
involved in conscious perception of visceral sensations
Where is the Cerebral White Matter located?
deep to the Grey Matter
What does the Cerebral White Matter do?
provides communication between cerebral areas and between the cerebral cortex and the lower CNS centers
What is Cerebral White Matter consisting of?
myelinated fibers bundled into large tracts classified according to the direction they run
Name the directions that the fibers run in Cerebral White Matter
Commisures, Association Fibers, and Projection fibers
Commisures
fibers that connect areas of both hemipheres
Association Fibers
transmit impulses within different areas of the same hemipheres
Projection Fibers
fibers entering the cerebral hemiphere from lower brain or cord centers, and fibers leaving the cortex to travel to the lower areas
Where do the Projection Fibers cross?
Medulla Oblongoda
Basal Nuclei
islands of grey matter located deep within the white matter
What is the function of Basal Nuclei?
control large automatic skeletal muscle contraction and to product dopamine
Dopamine
makes actions have a fluid motion
Name the parts of the Cerebral Hemipheres
Cerebral Cortex,
Motor Areas,
Sensory Areas,
Association Areas,
Cerebral White Matter, and Basal Nuclei
None
Name an example of Basal Nuclei's work
moving your arms when you walk
Name the parts of Diencephalon
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Epithalamus
Where is the Thalamus located?
superiolateral walls of the third ventricle
What is thalamus composed of?
composed of masses of grey matter held together by intermediate mass
Intermediate Mass
midline that holds grey matter
What does the Thalamus contain?
many nuclei; each project fibers to, and receive fibers from, a specific region of the cerebral cortex
What is the Thalamus responsible for?
determining what goes where; acts as a "relay station" to the cerebral cortex
Where is the Hypothalamus located?
in the inferolateral walls of the third ventrical
Infundibulum
where the hypothalamus meet
What is suspended in the infundibulum?
Pituitary Gland
What is the main visceral control gland?
The Hypothalamus
What are the Hypothalamus' homeostatic roles?
Autonomic Control Center, Emotional Response and behavior,
Body Temp Regulation starts sweating and shivering, Regulates food water balance sleep,
and releases hormones that control secretions of the pituitary gland
None
Name what the Autonomic Control center controls
BP HR GI, respiration, pupil size
Where is the Epithalamus found?
in the dorsal portion of the diencephalon and forms the roof of the third ventrical
What does the Epithalamus contain?
pineal gland and Choroid Plexus
What does the Pineal Gland secrete?
melatonin that regulates sleep cycle
What does Choroid Plexus produce?
CSF
Name the parts of the Brain Stem
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Where is the Midbrain located?
inferior to the third ventricle and thalamus region
Name all the parts of the Midbrain
Cerebral Peduncles,
Cerebral Aqueduct,
Nuclei,
Substantia Nigra,
Red Nucleus
None
Cerebral Peduncles
pyramidal motor tracts
cerebral aqueduct
tube that connects the 3rd and 4th ventricle
Nuclei
Corpora quadragemina
Name the parts of the Nuclei
Superior Colliculi and Inferior Colliculi
Superior Colliculi
visual reflexes, head/eye movements
Inferior Colliculi
auditory relay, startle reflex
Substantia Nigra
contains melanin and regulates subconcious muscle control
Red Nucleus
contains iron and hemoglobin and coordinates muscular movements
Where is the Pons located?
between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata
What does the Pons posses?
conduction fibers between higher and lower brain centers and also between the pons and the cerebellum
Pneumotaxic and Apneustic
pons nuclei that are respitory centers that help to maintain respiration patterns
Where is the Medulla Oblongata located?
most inferior part of the brain stem which blends into the spinal cord
Name what the Medulla Oblongata does?
controls force and rate of heart contraction,
regulates BP by regulating smooth muscle,
rate and depth of breathing,
vomiting hiccupping swallowing coughing and sneezing
None
How much of the bain is Cerebellum?
11%
Vermis
connects 2 bilateral symmetry hemipheres in cerebellum
Folia
gyri in Cerebellum
Arbor Vitae
pattern of white matter that looks like a tree
What does the Cerebellum do?
voluntary muscle contraction,
determines body position, coordinates forces direction and extent of muscle contraction,
dispatches blueprint for coordination
None
What is another name for Limbic System
"doughnut shaped area"; emotional brain
Where is the Limbic System located
spans large areas around the cerebral hemipheres
What does the Limbic System connect?
the old and new brain (lower portion and cerebrum)
What part of the brain gets motion sickness?
Cerebellum
Name the parts of the Limbic System's emotion
Amygdala and Cingulated Gyrus
Amygdala
recognizes angry and fearful expressions and has fear responses
Cingulated Gyrus
plays a role in expressing our emotion through gestures and resolving mental conflicts when frustrated
Hippocampus
plays a role in the Limbic System helping memory
Name the types of protections of the brain
Meninges, Cerebral Spinal Fluid, and Blood Brain Barrier
Meninges
connective tissue membranes external to the CNS
Name the functions of the Meninges
Cover and protect CNS, protect bloodvessles and enclose venous sinuses, contains CSF, and forms partitions within the skull
Name the componets of Meninges
Dura Mater, Pia Mater, Arachnoid Mater
Dura Mater
a double membrane that surrounds the brain (superficial)
Arachnoid Mater
forms loose brain covering that absorbs CSF
Pia Mater
a delicate connective tissue that clings to the brain and in invested with blood
Name the order of the meninges
Dura Mater, Subdural Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Subarachnoid Space, Pia Mater
Cerebrospinal Fluid
liquid cushion surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Where is Cerebrospinal Fluid found?
within the subarachnoid space
What does the cerebrospinal fluid do?
aids in supplying nourishment
What does the Cerebrospinal fluid contain?
less proteins but more NaChloride, Mg, and H ions than blood
What is the Cerebrospinal fluid made from?
choroid plexuses
Why is there continous circulation in the Cerebrospinal fluid?
because of the ependymal cells
Why is there a Blood-Brain Barrier?
because the extracellular fluids are in constant flux and the neurons would fly uncontrollably
What is needed in a Blood-Brain Barrier?
capillaries have thick basal laminia,
continious endothieum with tight junctions making them selectivly permiable,
astrocyte's bulbus feet covering many openings
None
What passes through the Blood-Brain Barrier?
Glucose, essential amino acids, and some electrolytes by facilitated diffusion
What is denied entry through the Blood-Brain Barrier?
blood-born metabolic wastes, protiens, certain toxins, and some drugs
When is the Blood-Brain Barrier ineffective?
against fats, fatty acids, O, and Carbon Dioxide
What is the only thing that your brain can burn for energy?
Gluclose
What is not uniform?
Blood Brain Barrier
What is sensitive to changes in blood?
Middle Brain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata
Why are some parts of the brain sensitive to changes in blood?
Because they are in charge of Homeostasis
Name the protections and the Coverings of the Spinal Cord
Meninges (same as in brain but only has one layer of membrane
Where are the Meninges located in the Spinal Cord?
in the vertebral foramen
Name the external anatomy of the spinal cord
cervical,
lumbar,
anterior median fissurre, posterior median sulcus,
conis Medularis,
Cauda Equine,
filum terminale,
roots,
dorsal foot,
ventral foot
None
How many pairs of nerves are there?
31
Roots
2 points of attachments for the nerves
What does the dorsal root contain?
sensory nerve fibers which includes a swelling that has the cell bodies of sensory neurons
What does the Central root contain?
motor nerve fibers
Name the parts of the internal anatomy
interior gray matter and white matter, central canal, and tracts
The Centeral Canal is a continuation of what?
the 4th ventricle
Gray matter is divided into what?
Horns
White matter is divided into what?
Columns
Tracts
nerve axon bundles that are in white columns
Name the types of tracts
ascending and desending (sensory and motor)
Electroencephalogram
a device that records electrical brain activity
Name the types of waves
Alpha Beta Theta and Delta
Alpha Waves
awake but relaxed state
Beta Waves
awake but alert state
Theta Waves
high imagination (common in children)
Delta Waves
deep sleep (coma or anesthesia) and brain damage
Name the types of Conciousness
Alertness Drousiness and lethargy Stupor and Coma
Stupor
no response when shaken
Name the types of sleep
Non Rapid Eye Movement sleep and REM sleep
Memory
storage and retreival of information
stages of memory
short term memory and long term memory
things that affect memory
emotional state, amount of rehearsal, excitement and association with old information
Epileptic Seizures
abnormal electric discharges of groups of brain neurons, during which no other messages can get through
Fainting
loss of consciousness mostly due to low blood flow
Fainting (another word)
syncope
coma
total unresponsiveness to sensory stimuli for an extended period
concussion
slight brain injury but no permanent neurological damage
cerebrovascular accident
stroke or blood flow blocked to the brain
paralysis (another word)
paresthesias
paralysis
loss of motor function
cerebral palsy
neuromuscular disability in which voluntary muscles are poorly controlled or paralyzed as a result of brain damage
amnesia
loss of memory
narcolepsy
lapsing abruptly into sleep from the awake state
insomnia
chronic inability to obtain the amount or quality of sleep needed to function adequately during the day
sleep apnea
temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the spinal cord caused by a viral infection
hydocephalus
accumulation of CSF around the brain (big head baby)
spina bifida
incomplete formation of the vertebral arches
microencephaly
congenital conditon resulting in a small brain
anencephaly
the cerebrum and parts of the brain stem never develop
parkinson's disease
neurodegenerative disorder of the basal nuclei involving abnormalities of the neurotransmitter dopamine
alzheimer's disease
progressive degenerative disease ultimately causing dementia; associated with Ach shortage and shrinkage of gyri
Huntington's disease
fatal hereditary disorder that strikes during middle age and causes massive degeneration of basal nuclei