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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Archaeology
- a method for studying past human cultures and analyzing material evidence
Archaeological Site
- a place where human activity occurred and material remains were left
Artifact
- any object significantly modified and used by humans
Historical Reconstruction
- the end product of archaeological research
Anthropology
- science of humans
Inference
- conclusion from observations
Hypothesis
- a proposed explanation from facts
Observation
- recognizing a fact
Anthropology
-study of humans
Anthropomorphic
-human shape
Propitious
- good shape/body
Anthropomorphic vessel
- pot
Anthropoid
- refers to apes, or monkeys, humanlike animals
Paleopathology
-old disease
Paleo-ethno-botanists
- Old-ethnic-plants
Subs of Anthropology
Physical
Cultural
Subs of Physical
Forensic
Evolution
Primatology
Physical
-studies human evolution
Forensic
experts at human skeletons
Primatology
study of primates/apes
Cultural
evolution of cultures,
Subs of Cultural
Linguistics
Archeology
Ethnology
Ethnology
study living people that are ancestors of -non-industrialized societies
-helps archeologists learn about cultures before
Archeology
- studies material remains to describe human behavior
Linguistics
- study language variations and changes
Ideology
- belief system
Social Structure
- way the society organizes itself
Behavior patterns
- types of behavior, agricultural, hunting, cooking etc
Hunting and gathering
- of animals and plant foods
Pastoral
- herding animals have a nomadic life
Agricultural
- horticultural: gather enough for families
-intensive agriculture: gather for a lot of people, has a cast society
types of behavior patterns
Hunting and Gathering
Pastoral
Agricultural
Bands
-nomadic
-hunters and gatherers
-25-50 people, shared their talents: shared their food from hunting and people shared there picking berries skills
-everyone and everything was equal to e/o
Tribes
- bigger, leadership based on ability to hunt
-practiced reciprocity
-animists: they were a part of nature not above
- women were farmers, men were hunters and warriors
Chiefdoms
- chief somewhat based on ability
-ranked society,
-agriculture was invented
-ruler was descendents of god
States
-ranked, like chiefdoms
-reinforced religious beliefs,
-had markets, factories
-like societies today
Feature
- the context around where an artifact is found like bricks and sipapu
Ecofacts
-have cultural relevance but aren’t modified by humans like plants and wild animals
Sites
- clusters of artifacts, ecofacts, and features
Surface sites and buried site
underwater or ground
Regions
- geographically defined area with interrelated human communities
Matrix
- physical stuff that surrounds and supports the artifacts
Provenience
- the location of this artifact, like lateral and longitude used to state where a place is
Association
- two or more remains occurring together
Context
-can tell about an artifact from where it is located
-primary: undisturbed, burials and tombs, midden
-secondary: disturbed, bioturbation, overlapping burials, tomb robbers
Midden
-garbage pits, primary context, have layers of stratification,
-Bioturbation-disturbance of animals of garbage
-explains why Basket maker and Pueblo stuff is mixed in together
Clusters
-archeological data found in association of e/o
Experimental Archeology
- reconstructs techniques used before like flint knapping
Social Archeology
- reconstruction of social cat systems
First American Indians
- hunters and gatherers, 15,000-12,000 years ago, bands, stayed in rock shelters,
Basket Maker II
-Lived in rock shelters
-Made baskets for cooking and storage
-5 ft. tall, men w/ long hair and women with short- preserved because of the dry area they lived in
-Collected seeds, nuts, fruit, berries, and were cooked in baskets
-Lots of hunting and little agriculture
-Used Atlatl: like a spear but part of it stayed in the hand and part detached
- Had Yucca sandals
Basket Maker III
-Pithouses,
-Pottery: plain gray but elaborate baskets
-More agriculture, more corn
- ceremonial- kivas were underground and had a sipapu: believed that the spirits came through that hole
- bow and arrow: more accurate
-turkey was a domesticated animal, bow and awls used for sowing
-Manos and Matates and jewelry
Pueblo I
-Heads flattened from boards from the cradle
-Houses were surface dwellings, most activities outside
-Had kivas with fires and sipapu
-Pottery experimented with different shapes
-Black and white designed pottery
Pueblo II
-Became a chiefdom (ranked society) before tribes
-Evidence- tall, well formed: have been eating more meat and buried with jewels
-Great Kivas
-Traded stuff- Jade and carried things
Pueblo III
-Moved in cliff overhangs for protection
-Went south b/c there was a drought (from tree rings thick ring lots of water, thin line little or no water
-Had logs on kivas- burned the wood and preserved it