Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Second Industrial Revolution
was a period of time of rapid frowth in U. S. manufacturing in the late 1800's.
Bessemer Process
was a process that was a quick, cheap way to make steel by blasting through melted iron to quickly remove waste material
Thomas Edison
person who created the lightbulb and investigated the practical uses of electricity
an exclusive right to make or sell an ivention
free enterprise
a term that means the government usually does not interfere with business
people who start new businesses, had a lot of freedom and many opportunities
businesses formed by entrepreneurs
Andrew Carnegie
- invested in iron mills and bridge building
-involved in steel industry
John D. Rockerfellar
-involved with oil industry
-largest oil refinery
vertical intergration
owning the businesses involved in each step of a manufacturing process
horizontal intergration
owning all the businesses in a certain field
a grouping together of a number of companiesunder one board of direectors
Social Darwinism
-survival of the fittest
-some whealthy business leaders argued that it was the poor persons responibility to work hard for a better life
-others claimed that it was the wealthy's duty to aid the poor
giving money to the needy
Sherman Antitrust Act
law that outlawed monopolies and trust that restricted trade
How did steel processing change in the 1850s, and what effect did this change have on the population and economy of the United States?
Because of steel processing, immigration was common, population increased, and poeple could afford steel for their personal needs becasue of the Bessemer Process.
What new source of power became available in the late 1800s, and how were they used?
- engines, machinery

Petroluem & Kerosine
- cooking, home lighting

- light, heat air, communications
Did all business leaders become philanthropist?
Eventually all businessmen became philanthropist because they were pressured by others to donate money.
How did antitrust feelings lead to the Sherman Antitrust Act?
They were the people who proposed it.
What development occured in the steel, oil, and electric power industries during the Second Industrial Revolution?
-electric stove
Period in the late 1800s when U.S. manufacturing experienced rapid growth and made the nation the world's industrial leader
Second Industrial Revolution
Invented a quicker and less expensive way to make steel
Henry Bessemer
Designed railroad passenger and sleeping cars that made long-distance travel more comfortable
Railroad owner who consolidated smaller railroad companies and improved railroad services in cities
Cooking, heating, and lighting fuel made by refining crude oil
Exclusive right to manufacture or sell an invention
Invented an engine powered by gasoline
Nick Otto
Designed and built a gasoline-powered airplane
Wright Brother
Inventor who patented the telephone
Alexander Grham Bell
Inventor whose research team created a workable electric lightbulb
collective bargaining
when workers worked together
Knights of Labor
a union set up during an economic downturn in 1870's and accepted anyone, skilled or unskilled, to work
American Federation of Labor
-Gompers lead
-AF of L only selected skilled workers
-limited membership
Haymarket Riot
Event that occurred in Chicago, Illinois, when workers met to protest the deaths of two strikers killed earlier by police:
people who oppose all forms of government
Pullman Strike
-cut the wages of people who were left
Replaced many skilled workers
Person who performed time-and-motion studies in order to standardize worker activity
Fredrick W. Taylor
Formed to improve working conditions
labor unions
When union leaders negotiate on behalf of all workers in a particular factory or industry
collective bargining
Leader of the Knights of Labor who turned it into the first truly national labor union in the United States:
Terence V. Powderly
Well-known female union organizer
Mary Harris Jones
Labor union that organized individual national unions into a loose association
American Federation of Labor
old immigrants
-settled outside cities
new immigrants
-moved into cities
-attracted by jobs
an area below deck on a ship lower levels near wher the steering mechanisms for the ship were located
benevolent societies
offered help in cases of death, sickness, and unemployment
Chinese Exclusion Act
law that banned Chinese people from coming to the U.S. for 10 years
Immigration Restriciton League
league wanted all immigrants to prove that they could read and write in some language before being allowed into the country
neighborhoods outside of downtown areas
settlement houses
neighborhood centers in poor areas staffed by professionals and volunteers
Urban population grows dramatically in the late 1800s
-Economic opportunities encourage poor laborers to move to cities
-Many rural residents move to cities to escape agricultural hardships
-African Americans from the rural South begin moving to northern cities in the 1890s seeking to escape discrimination and to find better economic oppurtuinities
New technology transforms city life in the late 1800s
-Using lower-cost steel and steam-powered safety elevators, architects build skyscrapers, which makes city centers more densely populated.
-Cities build mass transit systems such as elevated railways, subways, cable cars, trolleys, and streetcars to ease congestion
City residents respond to some of the challenges of growth
-Crowded conditions lead many middle-class residents to move to the suburbs, while a lack of affordable housing leaves the poor crowded into dangerous tenements
-Cities create permanent police forces and hire full-time firefighters.
-City residents form benevolent societies, churches, unions, and settlement houses to provide needed services
-Public parks, libraries, museums, and department stores create public spaces that improve the quality of life
National Grange
social and educationalorganization dedicated to improving farmers lives
Interstate Commererce Act
law passed which provided consistant national regulations on trade between states
Insterstate Commerce Commission
created to ensure that railroads charged fair rates and did not favor big shippers
free coinage
both gold and silver were made into coins
gold standard
under which only gold could back up U.S. currency
From 1860 to 1900, the U.S. population more than _______________, and the number of farms increased to feed the growing population.
The combination of more farms and greater productivity in the late 1800s led to overproduction and _______________ prices for crops.
The National Grange was founded by _______________ and several government clerks as a social and educational organization for farmers
Oliver Kelly