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30 Cards in this Set

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b. neurotransmitters
At synapses, ions move across cell membranes through chemically-gated channels. The gates are opened or closed by __________.

a. synapses
b. neurotransmitters
c. synaptic potentials
d. dendrites, the cell body, and the axon
Passive channels are located in the cell membrane on the ______, _______, and the ______.

a. dendrites
b. the cell body
c. the axon
d. dendrites, the cell body, and the axon
c. resting membrane potentials
Passive channels are responsible for establishing the ______ _________ ________.

a. action potentials
b. synaptic potentials
c. resting membrane potentials
e. dendrites, and the cell body
Most chemically-gated channels are located on the _________, and the _____ ______.

a. axon
b. dendrites
c. the cell body
d. axon, dendrites, and the cell body
e. dendrites, and the cell body
b. synaptic potentials
Chemically-gated channels are responsible for producing _______ _______.

a. action potentials
b. synaptic potentials
c. resting membrane potentials
e. axon hillock, unmyelinated axons, nodes of Ranvier
Most voltage-gated channels are found on the _______ ________, all along __________ _____, and at the in _____ ___ ________ in myelinated axons.

a. axon
b. dendrites
c. the cell body
d. axon, dendrites, and the cell body
e. axon hillock, unmyelinated axons, nodes of Ranvier
a. action potentials
Voltage-gated channels are responsible for generation and propagation of the _______ _______.

a. action potentials
b. synaptic potentials
c. resting membrane potentials
a. open, close
Binding neurotransmitter to a receptor on the postsynaptic cell causes a change in the shape of the receptor. This can ______, or in some cases ______, the ion channel.

a. open, close
b. depolarize, repolarize
b. postsynaptic cell
Neurotransmitters that bind to ion channels are said to act directly. They cause a brief, rapid change in the membrane potential of the _____________ ______.

a. presynaptic cell
b. postsynaptic cell
a. acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine
Directly-acting neurotransmitters include ________, ________, ______, and _______.

a. acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine
b. acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, and serotonin
c. acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine
b. multiple binding
We have shown only a single molecule of neurotransmitter binding to each channel. Ion channels typically have _________ _______ sites for neurotransmitters and require the binding of more than one neurotransmitter molecule to open or close the channel.

a. single binding
b. multiple binding
a. excitatory postsynaptic potential, EPSP
An __________ __________ __________, or ______, is produced when the movement of ions makes the inside of the cell more positive.

a. excitatory postsynaptic potential, EPSP
b. inhibitory postsynaptic potential, IPSP
a. into the cell, out of the cell
Ion channels at a typical excitatory synapse are specific for cations, having a watery pore large enough to pass both sodium and potassium. In a resting neuron, the electrochemical gradient for sodium is very large and causes sodium to move ______ _____ _____. The electrochemical gradient for potassium causes it to move ____ ____ ____, but the gradient is very small.

a. into the cell, out of the cell
b. out of the cell, into the cell
a. into the cell
Notice that more sodium moves _____ ______ _____ than potassium moves out.

a. into the cell
b. out of the cell
b. depolarize
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials ___________ neurons.

a. hyperpolarize
b. depolarize
a. threshold
If the neuron is depolarized to ___________, an action potential is generated.

a. threshold b. 0 millivolts c. +30 millivolts
a. inhibitory postsynaptic potential, IPSP
An ___________ __________ __________, or ________, is produced when the movement of ions makes the inside of the cell more negative.

a. inhibitory postsynaptic potential, IPSP
b. excitatory postsynaptic potential, EPSP
a. hyperpolarize, negative
Ion channels at a typical inhibitory synapse are specific for chloride and the electrochemical gradient for chloride causes it to move into the cell. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials _________ neurons making the membrane potential more _________.

a. hyperpolarize, negative
b. depolarize, positive
b. intracellular second messengers
Some neurotransmitters bind to receptors that are separate from ion channels. This process most often leads to production of ______________ __________ _________, which ultimately alter ion channels. Such neurotransmitters are said to act indirectly.

a. chemically labile neurotransmitters
b. intracellular second messengers
a. G protein
The receptor is coupled to the ion channel by a ___ __________.

a. G protein b. neurotransmitter c. electrical synapse
a. GDP
At rest, guanosine diphosphate, or _____, is bound to the G protein.

a. GDP
b. GTP
a. G protein
When norepinephrine binds to the receptor, the ___ ________ is activated, releases GDP, and binds guanosine triphosphate, or GTP, which is a high-energy molecule.

a. G protein b. neurotransmitter c. electrical synapse
b. enzyme
Part of the activated G protein travels in the membrane and activates an ________, which induces production of a second messenger.

a. protein
b. enzyme
c. neurotransmitter
c. neurotransmitter
The _______________ is the first messenger.

a. protein
b. enzyme
c. neurotransmitter
b. activates
The second messenger activates an intracellular enzyme, which __________ a potassium ion channel and closes it.

a. deactivates
b. activates
c. potassium
In the resting neuron, movement of _________ out of the cell acts to hyperpolarize the cell.

a. sodium
b. chloride
c. potassium
a. less negative and depolarizing
Closing these channels results in the membrane potential becoming ____ ______ and _________ the cell.

a. less negative and depolarizing
b. more negative and hyperpolarizing
a. Depolarization, synaptic potential
__________ of the cell by the indirect method is time consuming. The resulting __________ __________ is slow in onset, and long in duration.

a. Depolarization, synaptic potential
b. Hyperpolarization, hyperpolarization
b. acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, and serotonin
Besides excitation, indirectly-acting neurotransmitters can also produce slow inhibition. The neurotransmitters __________, _________, ______, and ______ can act indirectly as well as directly, depending on the receptor to which they bind.

a. acetyl choline, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine
b. acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, and serotonin
a. norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine
The catecholamines (____________, _________, and __________) and peptide neurotransmitters only act indirectly.

a. norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine
b. glutamate, GABA, and serotonin