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28 Cards in this Set

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The process by which plants and some other organisms capture light energy and use it to make food from carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis
A colored chemical compound that absorbs light
pigment
A substance that gives chloroplasts their green color and captures light energy during photosynthesis
chlorophyll
The small openings on the undersides of most leavwes through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
stomata
An organism that makes its own food
autotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food
heterotroph
The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain; also, the process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reactions inside cells.
respiration
The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen.
fermentation
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
cell cycle
The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs; during this stage, the cell grows, copies its DNA, and prepares to divide.
interphase
The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
replication
The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
mitosis
A rod-shaped cellular structure made of condensed chromatin; contains DNA, which carries the genetic information that controls inherited characteristics such as eye color and blood type.
chromosome
One of the pair of identical rods of a chromosome.
chromatid
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
cytokinesis
A disease in which some body cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them.
cancer
A change in a gene or chromosome.
mutation
A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
tumor
The use of drugs to kill cancer cells.
chemotherapy
A characteristic that an organism can pass onto its offspring through its genes.
trait
The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
heredity
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
DNA
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait.
gene
The reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
asexual reproduction
The reproductive process that involves two parents whose genetic material is combined to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents.
sexual reproduction
A male sex cell.
sperm
A female sex cell.
egg
The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation.
selective breeding