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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
active area on chromosome that codes for a trait and determine how that trait will develop
alternate forms of a gene
like alleles “BB or bb”
unlike alleles “Bb”
genetic makeup
the expressed characteristics
Combination of genotype and environment
Qualitative traits
•Primarily determined by genotype
•Little or no environmental influence
•Determined/ controlled by a small number of genes
•Detected by visual observation
•EX: hair color, horns
Quantitative Traits
•Most traits of economic importance
•Show continuous variation
oCannot be separated into distinct groups
•Affected by many genes
oImpossible to determine effect of one gene pair
•Environment affects gene expression
•Important tool for genetic improvement
•Differential reproduction
•Change in gene frequency in the population
o Increase frequency of desirable genes
o Decrease frequency of undesirable genes
•% of phenotypic variation that is genetic and transmitted from parents to progeny
•Ranges from 0 to 100%
•It is an estimate
What trait has the lowest heritability? the highest?
reproduction; mature size/carcass traits
Expected Progeny Difference:
The amount by which the average progeny of the animal is expected to exceed the average of the herd population
What is EPD used for?
•Best tool for genetic selection
•Used to compare genetic potential
•Available for cattle, sheep, and swine
•Theoretical average = 0
Straight breeding:
mating animals of the same breed
mating animals of different breeds
oResults from the combining of desirable traits of various breeds
oGet good w/ the bad
oTerm used in cattle, sheep, poultry
(used in swine industry)
oDeveloped from specific line crosses, selected for a specific trait
oLarge corporate seedstock suppliers of boars and gilts
What is a breed?
•Animals of common origin
oPossess characteristics that distinguish them from other groups within the species
oThrough selection and breeding, come to resemble and pass traits uniformly to offspring
Breed complementation:
match strengths and weaknesses of different breeds
Heterosis(hybrid vigor):
increase in productivity of the crossbred progeny that is greater than expected based on the average of the parents
% heterosis:
difference/ amt expected