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38 Cards in this Set

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catabolic pathways
releases energy by breaking complex molecules into simpler ones
what uses up energy to make complicated molecules from simpler ones
anabolic pathways
kinetic energy
anything that moves has energy
what energy comes form the random movement of molecules
thermal energy
potential energy
even tho an object isnt moving it still has the capacity to hold energy
what is the first law of thermodynamics?
energy cant be destroyed or created. It can only be changed from its original form or be transferred
what is the second law of thermodynamics
eveery modification or transfer of energy increases the amt of entropy or disorder in the world
what is lost when transferring energy?
heat
when is heat mose useful?
if heat is a type of energy then what can be concluded
heat is only good when it moves from a warm to a cooler area.energy stays the same but its form can change
what kind of energy can happen without any other force acting on it to make it work?
spontaneous energy!and on top of that it increaes the stabililty of a system but is only consider spontaneous if it increases entropy of the universe.
nonspontaneous energy is energy that...
can't occur on its own...wuss?
what kind of energy is available for work only when temperature is uniform throughout a system
free energy is less than a system's total energy
what does instability in a system depend on?
instability depends on the tendency to change to a more stable state.
systems that have more free energy are more or less stable?
more free energy means less stability but greater work potential
when are systems more stable but have a lower work capacity
when they have less free energy in the system. when there is less free energy then a reaction is closer to equilbrium.
exergonic
when energy is released. it is spontaneous
endergonic
endergonic is when energy moves inward. It also is nonspontaneous and absorbs energy
what is ATP
it's called adeosine triphosate it has a nitrogenous base adenine bonded to ribose, similar to RNA
how is ATP different from RNA
ATP has 3 phosphate groups, all of which are negative, attached to ribose. This creates instabilitiy. however, RNA has only one phosphate attached to ribose
how is ADP made?
hydrolysis separates the phosphate groups of ATP right? Then the now inorganic ATP leaves and becomes ADP. This reaction is exergonic
tell me some fun stuff abt phosphate bonds?
1)phosphate has lot's of energy becuz of their weak bonds.
is ATP more or less stable than ADP
The products of hydrolsis (ADP) are more stable meaning ATP is less stable than ADP. This is becuz it's an exergonic change so energy is obtained from the chemical change and the system is basically asking for more stability
what the heck is phosphorylated?
this is when whoever is lucky enuf to get the phosphate sent by ATP that has the combined energy of hydrolysis and endergonic processes. this intermediate is less stable than the original molecucle.
how is ATP regenerated?
ATP is made thru the endergonic process of adding a phosphate to ADP
enzymes
catalytic proteins
what is a catalyst?
a chemical that changes the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
if u break bonds is energy released or absorbed
breaking bonds releases energy while forming bonds usues up energy
what energy is used to break bonds in reactant molecules?
activation energy
when will cells die?
a cell will die if it doesn't have enuf energy to get over the activation energy hump.
what is the general name of the reactant that the enzyme acts on?
substrate.
what allows an enzyme to catalyze?
Enzymes have a unique 3d conformation this is what lets them catalyze a particular reaction.
what the heck is an active site?
it is the part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate. even tho it is similar to what it binds to the active site does have to be changed tightly by the substrate so it can fit snugly.
what are some awesome things to know about the active site?
1) it lets two completely different substances interact.
2)it also lets the enzyme stretch and break important bonds that need to be broken
what happens with an increase in temperature during an enzymatic reaction? what if the temperature drops dramatically?
An increase in temperature will result in a faster enzymatic reaction since substrates will collide with active sites quicker. If the temperature drops too quickly then then the high heat will cause the protein molecule to denature
if ur a cofactor then you like to help factor polynomials?
no! a cofactor is a nonprotein that helps out an enzyme to catalyze. how sweet. if inorganic it is called coenzyme
can regulatory molecules alter how an enzyme is shape and what it's used for?
yep! the allosteric site is where regulatory molecules do their drag job. They start by binding to a specific receptor site which is totally different from the active site
how are most allosterically made enzymes made of? what does this have?
most enzymes made by allosteric regulation are made up of 2 or more polypeptide chain or subunits. These subunits have their own active sites. their joined where there are allosteric sites. This means if one subunit changes then they all will
what is a metabolic control?
feedback inhibition since it switches a metabolic pathway by its end product which acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme in the pathway.