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43 Cards in this Set

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Proximate questions
How Q's?
What is the mechanistic basis for the behavior?
How does development affect the behavior?
Ultimate questions
Why Q's
What is the evolutionary history of the behavior?
How does the behavior contribute to survival and
reproduction?
eusocial insects
sisters are more closely related to each other than they are
to their own offspring
kinesis
Directed movement
- not oriented, change in frequency in response to stimulus
taxis
Directed movement - oriented movement towards or away from stimulus
Altruism
Behavior that reduces individual fitness but increase the fitness of other individuals in the population
Hamilton’s rule
B . r > C
B: benefit
r: relatedness
C: cost
ethology
The study of animal behavior in natural conditions.
fixed action pattern (FAP)
sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried to completion once initiated.
sign stimulus
An external sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern.
imprinting
learned behavior with a significant innate component, acquired during a limited critical period.
sensitive period
A limited phase in an individual animal′s development when learning of particular behaviors can take place.
signal
A behavior that causes a change in behavior in another animal.
promiscuous
A type of relationship in which mating occurs with no strong pair–bonds or lasting relationships.
monogamous
A type of relationship in which one male mates with just one female.
polygamous
A type of relationship in which an individual of one sex mates with several of the other.
polygyny
A polygamous mating system involving one male and many females.
polyandry
A polygamous mating system involving one female and many males.
agonistic behavior
A type of behavior involving a contest of some kind that determines which competitor gains access to some resource, such as food or mates.
altruism
Behavior that reduces an individual′s fitness while increasing the fitness of another individual.
inclusive fitness
The total effect individual has on proliferating its genes by producing offspring and enabling close relatives to produce offspring
kin selection
A phenomenon of inclusive fitness, used to explain altruistic behavior between related individuals.
reciprocal altruism
Altruistic behavior between unrelated individuals
social learning
Modification of behavior through the observation of other individuals.
sociobiology
The study of social behavior based on evolutionary theory.
habituation
a type of learning that leads to a decrease in response to a stimulus
operant conditioning
learning associated with reward or punishment
classical conditioning
learning to associate a stimulus with a particular outcome
species diversity
The number and relative abundance of species in a biological community.
species richness
The number of species in a biological community.
relative abundance
Differences in the abundance of different species within a community.
trophic structure
"The different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling. "
food chain
"The pathway along which food is transferred from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with producers. "
food web
"The elaborate, interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem. "
energetic hypothesis
The concept that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain. Predicts that food chains should be relatively longer in habitats of higher photosynthetic productivity
dynamic stability hypothesis
The idea that long food chains are less stable than short chains. Predicts that food chains should be shorter in unpredictable environments
dominant species
Those species in a community that have the highest abundance or highest biomass. These species exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species.
biomass
The dry weight of organisms in a particular habitat.
invasive species
A species that takes hold outside of its native range; usually introduced by humans.
keystone species
A species that exerts strong control on community structure by the nature of its ecological role or niche.
Foundation Species
cause physical changes in the environment that affect the structure of the community
facilitator
A species that has a positive effect on the survival and reproduction of other species in a community
biomanipulation
Reduces algae by manipulating the higher–level consumers