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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where does the largest pressure drop in the circulation occur?
along arterioles
which blood vessels have the greatest resistance to flow?
arterioles
where in the body is there dense sympathetic vasoconstrictor innervation?
skin, GI tract, kidney (low priority organs)
which organs have a low density sympathetic vasoconstrictor innervation?
heart, brain (high priority organs)
what are the receptos on smooth muscle that cause vasoconstriction?
alphs
where is adrenaline released from?
adrenal medulla (by sympathetic activity)
which receptors does adrenaline activate?
alpha and beta
what are the alpha effects on peripheral blood vessels?
vasoconstriction
which receptor causes vasodilation in coronary arterioles?
beta receptors
what is the effect of angiotensin on blood vessels?
vasoconstriction
what is the effect of vasopressin (ADH) on blood vessels?
vasoconstriction
what is the effect of histamine on blood vessels?
vasodilation, increases capillary permeability
what is the main mechanism for matching local blood flow to the needs of small groups of cells?
vasodilator metabolites (decreased O2, increased CO2, lactic acid, adenosine)
what is NO produced in response to?
flow-induced shear stress on endothelial cells
when does smooth muscle contraction occur?
when myosin light chain is phosphorylated
which particles transport lipids around the body?
lipoproteins
are cholesterol esters contained in the coat or core of lipoproteins?
core
what type of lipids are in the core of lipoproteins?
cholesterol esters, triglycerides
which are the largest lipoproteins?
chylomicrons
which lipoproteins are TAG rich?
chylomicrons, VLDLs
which lipoproteins are cholesterol ester rich?
LDLs and HDLs
which apoproteins are responsible for targeting?
B48, B100, E
which apoproteins are enzyme activators?
A1, CII
how do statins reduce LDL levels?
suppress cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMGCoA reductase
what activates LCAT?
ApoA1
which drugs reduce high TAG levels?
fibrates
what does ST segment elevation indicate?
transmural ischaemia
what does ST depression indicate?
subendocardial ischaemia
when does T wave inversion occur?
after ischaemia has passed or if there has been infarction
in which leads would there be ST elevation in the case of transmural ischaemia of the anterior wall?
V1-5
which drug treatments of ischaemic heart disease improve prognosis?
aspirin, beta-blocker, tatin, ACE inhibitor
which drug treatments of IHD alleviate symptoms?
nitrates, beta-blocker, calcium antagonist
/f... aspirin is effective for primary prevention of adverse events in patients at low risk of CV disease
false, aspirin is not effective in this case
what are the effects of nitrates?
vasodilation, reduction of myocardial O2 demand
how do statins act?
inhibit hepatic HMG CoA reductase
what are the two actions of ACE inhibitors?
inhibit conversion of Ang I to Ang II and inactivation of braykinin
what percentage of patients with intermittent claudication will require bypass?
will manage without operation?
will die of cardiac disease or stroke?
10-15%
85%
20%
what is the commonest cause of stroke and TIA?
thromboembolic disease arising from extracranial vessels
what vessels are commonly affected in diabetic peripheral vascular disease?
tibial and peroneal vessels
list some risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis
diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, hypertension, male sex, increasing age, positive family history, sedentary lifestyle, obesity
why are arterial branch points predisposed to atherosclerosis?
increased turbulence, cell turnover and permeability of endothelium
what is required of endothlial cells for the rolling, adhesion and diapedesis of monocytes?
expression of adhesion molecules
how do cytokines augment leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion?
promoting expression of endothelial adhesion molecules (e.g. VCAM-1) and monocyte ligand molecules (e.g. integrins)
how does the endothelium maintain vascular tone?
releasing prostacyclin (dilator), endothelin (constrictor), and endothelium-derived relaxing factor
what induces the change from contractile to synthetic SMC phenotype?
PDGF
t/f... the endothelial adhesion molecule VCAM-1 is an immunoglobulin
true
which cytokines increase the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1?
IL-1, TNF
what are the major determinants of myocardial O2 consumption?
heart rate, LV wall stress, contractility
what percentage of lumen must be obstructed to cause flow limitation at rest?
90%
which arrhythmia is likely with transmural infarcts in the posterior wall of the left ventricle?
bradyarrhythmia
which leads would show ST elevation in transmural ischaemia of the lateral wall?
V6, aVL
which leads would show ST elevation in transmural ischaemia of the inferior wall?
II, III, aVF
which artery is affected if the transmural ischaemia is affecting the lateral wall?
left circumflex
which artery is affected if the transmural ischaemia is affecting the inferior wall?
right coronary artery
which artery is affected if the transmural ischaemia is affecting the anterior wall?
LAD