Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/43

Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Amantadine (target organism, example, action)
Antiviral. Influenza A, inhibits uncoating of the virus
Enfuvirtide
Antiviral. HIV. Blocks gp41 binding
Acyclovir
Antiviral, HSV1,2,VZV, causes chain termination - inhibit DNA pol
Gancylcovir
Antiviral, CMV, Gunaosine analogue, inhibits DNA pol
Iododeoxyuridine
Antiviral, HSV, Iodine instead of Thymidine, faulty DNA
Foscarnet
Antiviral, HSV,CMV. Inhibits DNA pol by preventing removal of phosphates from dNTPs
AZT
Antiviral, HIV, Nucleoside analogue that inhibits RT
Dideoxyinosine
Antiviral, HIV, Nucleoside analogue - causes chain termination
Abacavir
Antiviral, HIV, Guanosine analogue - chain termination
Nevirapine/Delavirdine
Antiviral, HIV, inhibit RT by a conformational change
Indinavir, Saquinavir
Antiviral, HIV, protease inhibitors, so no cleavage of gag,pol,env
Fomivirsen
Antiviral, CMV, Anti-sense DNA - blocks viral mRNA from being translated
Zanamivir
Antiviral, Influenza, inhibits Neuraminidase thus inhibits virions release from cells
Penicillin
Antibacterial. Strep pyogenes. Inhibits Transpeptidase and thus synthesis of peptidoglycans
Ampicillin
Antibacterial. Peniciilin with an amino group. Are not hydrolized by stomach acid, can be taken orally and have a wider Gram- range (Pseudomonas)
Methicillin
Antibacterial. Penicillin with large aromatic ring -- cannot be cleaved by Beta-Lactmases
Augmentin
Antibacterial. Amoxicillin+Calvulanic acid (Beta-lactamases inhibitor)
Cephalosporins
Beta-lactam drugs. Action is same as penicillins -- inhibits cross linking of Peptidoglycans. Advantage - less hypersentivity reactions and have a broader range
Carbapenems
Antibacterial. Beta-lactams with differenet stucture. Imipenem has the widest spectrum. Examples : Strep, Neisseria, Hemophilus. Not inactivated by beta-lactamases
Monobactams
Antibacterial. Beta-lactam, active mainly against Gram- (Pseudomonas, enterobacteriace). Resistant to most Beta-lactamases
Vancomycin
Antibacterial. Inhibits cell wall synthesis by blocking transpeptidation by binding directly to D-Ala-D-Ala. Effective against Gram+. Examples : staph aureus, staph epidermidis. Is not inhibited by Beta - lactamases
Cycloserine
Antibacterial. Structural analogue of D-ala that inhibits synthesis of cell wall
Caspofungin
Antifungal. Inhibits synthesis of B-glucan, part of the cell wall of fungi. Candida, Aspergillus
Aminoglycosides. Also - toxicity
Antibacterial. Inhibit 30S rRNA and thus inhibit protein synthesis. Against Gram- rods. Nephrotoxic and Ototoxic. Streptomycin, Gentamicin...
Tetracyclins. What is its selectivity based on ?
antibacterial. Block 30S by blocking tRNA from entering the ribosome. Selectivity based on greater uptake into bacterial cells. Doxycycline. Rickettsia, Chlamydiae..
Chloramphenicol
Antibacterial. Bactericidal against the 3 encapsulated pyognes (Strep pneumonia, neisseria menigitidis, hemophilus influenza). Blocks peptidyltransferase in the 50S (may inhibit some mitochondrial protein synthesis)
Erythromycin
Antibacterial. Macrolide. Binds 50S and prevents release of uncharged tRNA. Examples - Legionella, Mycoplasma
Clindamycin. Important side effect.
Antibacterial. Binds to 50S. Bacteriostatic against gram+ and gram- anaerobes. Side effect - Clostridium difficile overgrowth ->psedumembranous colitis
Linezolid
Antibacterial. Useful in VISA. Binds 23S rRNA in the 50S
Sulfonamides
Antibacterial. PABA analogues, block synthesis of THF (humans do not use PABA precursors of THF). E.coli, strep pneumonia
Trimethoprim
Antibacterial. Inhibits production of THF by inhibiting Dihydrofolate reductase. Trimethoprim togehter with Sulfamethoxazole are used in UTIs, pneumocystis pneumonia
Quinolones
Antibacterial. Bactericidal - block DNA topoisomerase and thus block DNA synthesis. Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin) are useful against a broad spectrum
Flucytosine
Antifungal. Nucleoside analogue that inhibits dNA synthesis. Disseminated cryptococcal or candidal infections
Rifampin
Antibacterial. Blocks mRNA synthesis by bacterial RNA pol. TB, prophylaxis for Neisseria Meningtidis
Polymyxins
Antibacterial. Works by disrupting bacterial cell membrane. Gram- rods
Amphotericin B. Toxicity ?
Antifungal. Binds ergosterol and distrupts fungal membranes. Nephrotoxic. Works in disseminated fungal diseases
Nystatin
Antifungal. Only for candida
Azoles
Antifungal. Inhibit ergosterol synthesis. Fluconazole, Itraconazole...used in systemic fungal infections
Isoniazid (INH)
Antibacterial. Against mycobacteria- inhibits mycolic acid synthesis. Penetrates cell wall therefore is effective against bacteria within mac's.
Metronidazole
Antibacterial + Antiprotozoal. Works against anaerobic bacteria and Giardia and Trichomonas potozoa. Damages DNA and inhibts DNA synthesis
Ethambutol
Antibacterial. Bacteriostatic against mycobacteria. Inhibits synthesis of ARabinogalactan which links mycolic acids and the peptidoglycan
Pyrazinamide
Antibacterial. Used in TB - inhibits fatty acid synthetase, thus inhibiting mycolic acids
Griseofulvin
Antifungal. Binds to microtubules and prevents mitotic spindle formation. Hair/nail infections