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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Elie Metchnikoff
Founded phagocytosis
Paul Ehrilich & Emil von Behring
Humoral immunity. Immulity to diptheria and tetanus resided in the cell free portion of the blood.
Wright and Douglas
Who discovered Opsonins: serum substances aided phagocytosis?
What causes infectious diseases?
Any abnormality of body structure and/or function.
Infection disease
Diesease caused by microorganisms.
The invasion or colonization of the body by a pathogenic microorganism.
living together
One organism is benefited and the other is unaffected.
Both organisms are benefited.
One organism is benefited at the expense of the other. (when the host is harmed)
Host-microbial relationships
Transient Microbiota/Flora
Normal/resident microbiota/flora
Opportunist/opportunistic pathogen
Transient Microbiota/Flora
Present only for a short time, without causing disease.
Opportunist/opportunistic pathogen
Organisms which are potentially disease causing but don't cause disease in healthy individuals. May cause disease in: immune compromised or suppreseed individuals, antibiotic therapy, ectopic sites (not normal place found), etc.
Disease causing organisms.
Normal/resident microbiota/flora
Microorganisms that colonize the body without causing disease.
Microbial antagonism
Prevents overgrowth of invading organisms/pathogens.
good guys
help prevent disease
communicable disease
noncommunicable disease
What are the classifications of infectious disease? (6)
something that someone feels
Can be observed and measured
Something you see
A group of symptoms/signs that together characterize a specific condition/disease.
communicable disease
Any disease spread from one host to another
Easily spread from one person to another.
Noncommunicable disease
1. opportunist
2. organism resides outside the body and is introduced by mechanical means.
e.g. Clost tetani (tetanus)
clost tetani (tetanus)
Give me an example of a noncommunicable disease.
incidence of disease
morbidity rate
# of new cases over a certain time period per healthy pop.
Usually given as # of cases/100,000.
___________ of a disease is the percent of the population having a particular disease at any given time.
The _________ of a disease is the fraction of a population that contracts it during a particular length of time.
If a disease occurs only occationally, it is termed _________; when it is constantly present, as is the common cold, it is termed ________.
An ______ disease is one that develps reapidly but last only a short time.
A ______ disease develops more slowly and the body reactions are often less severe, but its continuous or recurrent for long periods of time.
Diseases intermediate btwn acute and chronic are described as ________.
A _______ disease is one in which the pathogen is inactive for a time but then becomes active to produce the symptoms
Local infection
is one in which the invading microorganisms are limited to a relatively small area of the body, e.g., boils.
Systemic or generalized –
infection, microorganisms or their products are spread throughout the body by the blood or lymphatic system
Focal infection
one in which a local infection, sinuses, enters the blood or lymph and spreads to other parts of the body.
The presence of bacteria in the blood
Bacteremia –
a toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of bacteria or baterial toxins from a focus of infection
sepsis that results from the proliferation of bacterial pathogens in the bloodstream
presence of toxins in the blood.
Toxemia –
Viremia –
presence of viruses in the blood.
– is an acute infection that causes the initial illness.
Primary infection
Secondary infection
caused by an opportunist only after the primary infection has weakened the body’s defenses.
Subclinical (inapparent) infection
one that does not cause any noticeable illness.
Predispoing factors
_________ _______, such as gender, genetic background, climate, age, and nutrition, can greatly affent the occurrence of disease in individuals
Incubation period
the time btwn actual infection and the first appearance of signs or symptoms.
Prodromal period.
follow the incubation period in some diseases and is characterized by mild symptoms of the disease
Period of illness
The overt symptoms of the disease are apparent.
Period of decline .
The signs and symptoms subside
period of convalescence
The patient regains his or her prediseased state
Incubation period
Prodromal period
Period of illness
Period of decline
Period of convalescence
What are the 5 developments of disease?
reservior of infection
A continual source of the pathogen, such as an animal or inanimate object.
direct contact transmission
Infections may be spread more or less directly from one host to another by, ______ ______ ___________, such as kissing, handshaking, bites, or sexual intercourse.
Droplet infection
Agents of the disease are spread very short distances(less than meter) while contained in droplets of saliva or mucus from coughing or sneezing.
indirect contact transmission
_______ ______ __________ involves a nonliving object, such as a drinking cup or towel, called a _______.
vehicle transmission
_______ __________ is inanimate reserviors such as food, water, or blood may transmit diseases to large numbers of individuals.
airborne transmission
Diseases spread by agents of infection traveling on droplets or dust for a distance of more than a meter are considered to occur by ______ _________.
animals that carry pathogens from one host to another.
Mechanical transmission
Insects carry pathogens on their bodies to food that is later swallowed by the host.
Biological transmission
The anthropod may pass the pathogen in a bit, or it may pass the pathogen in its feces, which later enter the wound caused by the anthropods bite.
Portals of exit
Routes by which a pathogen leaves the body