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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the osteological and soft tissue superior boundary of the abdomen?
costal margin ribs 10-12 & xiphoid
resp diaphragm
What is the osteological and soft tissue posterior boundary of the abdomen?
lumbar vertebrae
posterior muscles
What is the osteological and soft tissue anterolateral boundary of the abdomen?
no osteologic
4 muscles (External & Internal Abdominal Obliques, transversus & rectus abdominis
What is the osteological and soft tissue inferior boundary of the abdomen?
pelvic brim
pelvic diaphragm
The inferior edge of the costal margin is associated with which plane? What organs lie at this plane?
subcostal plane
liver & spleen
What is the umbilicus? Which plane is it associated with? Which vertabrae level is it aligned with?
tissue remnant of umbilical cord
transumbilical plane
What is the name of the midline plane of the abdomen? What does it mark?
linea alba
junction of L&R aponeuroses of anterior wall muscles
What is the linea semilunaris?
paramedian furrow at lateral edge of L&R rectus muscles
What is the name of the transverse borders of the rectus muscles that give a washboard appearance?
tendinous intersections
What is the superior margin of the iliac bone?
iliac crest
What is the distal attachment point for the inguinal ligament? medial?
pubic tubercle
Which nerve is associated with the location of the ASIS? What else is associated w/ this area?
iliohypogastric nerve
appendectomy incision
Which plane are the iliac tubercles associated with?
transtubercular plane
What are the R&L pubic bones separated by?
symphysis pubis
What helps approximate the midsagittal plane?
linea alba
Which planes divide the abdomen into quadrants?
midsagittal and transumbilical
Which transverse planes help divide the abdomen into 9 regions?
transpyloric and transtubercular
Which vertical planes divide the abdomen into 9 regions?
Name the medial regions (of the 9) from superior to inferior. From which gut derivative does each come?
epigastric (foregut), umbilical (midgut), hypogastric (hindgut)
Name the lateral regions (of the 9) from superior to inferior).
hypochondriac, lumbar, inguinal
Discuss the location of primary blood vessels in the abdomen.
localized in defined areas and relatively void in other areas
Name the 7 layers of the abdominal wall.
skin, superficial fascia, deep fascia, muscles, transversalis fascia, subserous fascia, peritoneum
What are the natural lines of folding in skin due to orientation of collagen fibers?
langer lines
What are the two layers of the superficial fascia?
hypodermis, subcutaneous tissue
What are the 2 layers of subcutaneous CT (2 names for each)?
superficial fatty layer or Camper's fascia
superficial membranous layer or Scarpa's layer
Which type of subcutaneous CT is only found in the lower 1/3 of the abdominal wall?
Scarpa's layer
What are the 3 different parts of the Scarpa's layer?
false suspensory (or fundiform) ligament
Dartos Fascia and Colles fascia
What does the false susensory ligament cover?
What does the Dartos FAscia cover?
scrotum of males, labia majora of female
What does the Colles fascia attach to?
posterior edge of the urogenital diaphragm
What type of injury is it when the urethra is torn below the urogenital diaphragm?
Straddle Injury
Which layer of the abdominal wall encloses the muscles?
deep fascia
Where is the transversalis fascia?
posterior surface of transverse abdominis muscle
What is the deepest layer of the abdominal wall?
Name the 3 flat muscles of the abdominal wall.
external and internal abdominal obliques and transversus abdominis
What nerves innervate the external and internal abdominal obliques and the transversus abdominis?
T7-12 and L1
What is the action of the external & internal abdominal obliques?
compress, flex, rotate torso and protect internal organs
What is the action of the transversus abdominis?
compress abdomen and protect internal organs
What does the aponeurosis of the external abdominal obliques form?
inguinal ligament
The common insertion area of the internal oblique and transversus is triangulated between the pecten pubis and the linea alba. What is this called?
Conjoint Tendon (Falx Inguinalis)
What is the origin and insertion of the external abdominal obliques?
o-outer surface ribs 5-12
i-iliac & pubic crests; linea alba
What is the origin and insertion of the internal abdominal oblique?
o-iliac crest & posterior fascia & inguinal ligament
i-edge of ribs 7-12, linea alba, pubic crests
What is the origin and insertion of the transversus abdominis?
o-inner surface of ribs 7-12; iliac crest & posterior fascia; inguinal ligament
i-linea alba & pubic crests
What is the origin and insertion of the rectus abdominis muscles?
o-costal cartilage ribs 5-8 & xiphoid process
What is the innervation of the rectus abdominis muscle?
thoracic spinal nerves 7-12
What is the action of the rectus abdominis?
compress and protect abdomen; weak flexors of vertebral column
What forms the washboard abs of the rectus abdominis?
tendinous intersections (3)
What is the vertical skin furrow createdc by the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis?
linea semilunaris
What forms the rectus sheath?
aponeuroses of the 3 'flat' muscles extending medially to surround the recti muscles
Which part of the rectus sheath is incomplete? Is it incomplete on the anterior or posterior side?
lower 1/4
Where are the superior epigastric vessels located?
within the sheath on the posterior surface of the recti
What is the line between the complete rectus sheath and incomplete sheath?
arcuate line
What is the name of the posterior sheath of the abdomen?
transversalis fascia
Where are the inferior epigastric vessels located?
on posterior surface of recti
What determines the dermatomes of the abdomen? (Specifically which nerves)
peripheral distribution of spinal nerves T7-L1
What is the reason for hypoplasia?
dermatomes overlap, so w/ ablation of one nerve there is reduced senasation rather than anesthesia
Which nerve(s) supply the epigastric region?
Which nerve(s)supply the umbilical region?
Which nerve(s) supply the upper hypogastric region?
Which nerve(s) supply the middle hypogastric region? What is another name for the nerve at this level?
subcostal nerve
Which nerves come from L1?
iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
What does the iliohypogastric nerve supply? Is it deep or superficial?
lower hypogastric region
becomes superficial when it pierces EOM
Where is the iliohypogastric N located w/ respect to the superficial inguinal ring?
Which nerve emerges from the inguinal canal? What does it supply?
ilioinguinal N
anteriomedial upper thigh, anterior scrotal wall and root of penis (or labia majora and clitoris in females)
What does the superior epigastric artery stem from? Where is it located?
from internal thoracic A
posterior to rectus abdominis
What does the inferior epigastric A stem from? Where is it located?
from External iliac
posterior to rectus
What is the superfical epigastric artery stem from? What does it branch toward?
femoral A
toward umbilicus
What do the circumflex iliacs supply?
inguinal regions
What vein(s) drain the lumbar and hypochondriac regions?
posterior intercostals
What does the superior epigastric vein drain? What does it drain to?
posterior surface of recti muscles
internal thoracic
What is the connecting channel between the epigastric veins and lateral thoracic veins?
Which vein(s) are in the falciform ligament of the liver?
paraumbilical veins
What do the paraumbilical veins link?
superficial veins to the left branch of the portal vein
Where does the blood from the lower quadrants of the abdomen drain?
great saphenous
Which veins empty blood from the abdomen into the great saphenous?
superficial external pudendal, superficial circumflex iliac, superficial epigastric and inferior epigastric
What are 5 normal protrusions of the abdomen?
fat, flatus, feces, fluid, fetus
What does the inguinal canal contain?
spermatic cord or round ligament of the uterus, ilioinguinal nerve, genitofemoral nerve, fascia and CT, vascular & lymphatic vessels
What is the extension of the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique that covers the spermatic cord?
external spermatic fascia
What is the superficial (external) inguinal ring?
natural 'defect' in the EAO aponeurosis
What are the borders of the inguinal ring called?
medial and lateral crura
What are the aponeurotic fibers that reinforce the superior margin of the ring? How does this attach to the crura?
intercrural fibers
perpendicular to the crura
What forms the 'roof' of the inguinal canal? What does it attach to?
aponeurosis of internal abdominal oblique and aponeurosis of transversus abdominis
both attach medially to pubic tubercle, laterally to inguinal ligament
The aponeurosis of internal abdominal oblique and the aponeurosis of transversus abdominis blend medially to form what?
conjoined tendon
What is the lateral inferior edge of the aponeurosis of transversus abdominis a border for?
deep (internal) inguinal ring
What is the deep inguinal ring filled with? What does this inner part extend over?
transversalis fascia
internal spermatic fascia
What forms the posterior wall of the inguinal canal?
transversalis fascia and conjoint tendon
What distinguishes inguinal hernias?
their relationship to the inferior epigastric artery and their presence or absence within the inguinal canal
What type of inguinal hernia is medial to the inferior epigastric artery? Does this type of hernia go through the inguinal triangle?
What binds the inguinal (Hesselbach's) triangle?
inguinal ligament, lateral margin of rectus muscle and inferior epigastric artery
What type of inguinal hernia is lateral to the inferior epigastric artery? Where does this type of hernia pass?
goes into the passageway of the inguinal canal
Which type of inguinal hernia is congenital? acquired?