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60 Cards in this Set

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What part of the cell cycle does cyclophosphamide inhibit?
- G2
- M
- G1
- G0
- S
What part of the cell cycle does azathioprine inhibit?
- S
- G1
What part of the cell cycle does Mycophenolate inhibit?
- S
- G1
What part of the cell cycle is inhibited by methotrexate?
- S
- G1
Define cancer
Unregulated cell cycle
4 objectives of antineoplastics
- Increase patient survival time
- Improve quality of life
- Reduce tumor size
- Reduce/prevent metastasis
5 things that use of chemo agents is based on
- Tumor type
- Stage of malignancy
- Patient condition
- Tumor responsiveness to chemotherapy
- Constraints of owner
3 primary toxicities of antineoplastics
- Bone marrow suppression
- GI disturbances
- Alopecia (owner doesn't like)
Extravasation (define)
Leakage of a drug outside of vasculature
AE of extravasation (2)
- Tissue necrosis
- Sloughing of skin
3 drugs that can cause extravasation
- Doxorubicin
- Vincristine
- Vinblastine
6 reasons for therapeutic failure with antineoplastics
- Resistance
- Incorrect dosage
- Wrong drug
- Slow growing tumor
- Inability to reach all cancer cells
- Patient toxicity
8 causes of resistance in antineoplastics
- Selecting for resistance
- Altered ADME
- Tumor blood flow
- Low [drug]
- Drug inactivation
- Change in target receptor
- Repair of drug-induced damage
- Increased drug efflux
3 classes of alkylating agents
- Nitrogen mustards
- Nitrosureas
- Platinum coordination complexes
MoA of nitrogen mustards
Alkylates DNA
Toxicity of Nitrogen mustards
Severe bone marrow suppression
2 Nitrogen mustards
- Cyclophosphamide
- Chlorambucil
AE of Cyclophosphamide
Sterile hemorrhagic cystitis
MoA of nitrosureas
Form DNA-DNA and DNA-protein links
AE of nitrosureas
Severe bone marrow suppression
Specificity of nitrosureas
Cell cycle non-specific
Two nitrosureas
- Lomustine
- Carmustine
MoA of platinum compounds
Alkylates DNA
Specificity of platinum compounds
Cell cycle non-specific
Two platinum compounds
Cisplatin
Carboplatin
Which platinum compound is nephrotoxic?
Cisplatin
Which platinum compound suppresses bone marrow?
Carboplatin
Which platinum compound should NOT be used in cats?
Cisplatin
2 classes of anti-metabolites
- Folic acid analogs
- Pyrimidine analogs
Specificity of Folic acid analogs
S-phase specific
Drug that's a folic acid analog
Methotrexate
Which part of cell cycle does Methotrexate inhibit?
S-phase
AE of methotrexate
Bone marrow suppression
MoA of methotrexate
Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
- Inhibits DNA synthesis
2 pyrimidine analogs
- Cytarabine
- 5-Fluorouracil
MoA of cytarabine
Inhibits DNA synthesis
AE of Cytarabine
Bone marrow suppression
MoA of 5-fluorouracil
Inhibits thymidylate synthase
- Alters DNA and RNA synthesis
AE of 5-fluorouracil
Bone marrow suppression
Which pyrimidine analog drug crosses into the CNS?
5-fluorouracil
- CI in cats
Specificity of pyrimidine analogs
S-phase specific
3 natural antineoplastic classes
- Vinca alkaloids
- Antibiotics
- Enzymes
2 vinca alkaloids
- Vincristine
- Vinblastine
MoA of vinca alkaloids
Inhibits functions of microtubules
Specificity of vinca alkaloids
M-phase specific
Which vinca alkaloid agent causes extravasation?
- Vincristine
- Vinblastine
Which vinca alkaloid agent suppresses bone marrow?
- Vinblastine ***
- Vincristine
What drug causes peripheral neuropathy?
Vincristine
MoA of antineoplastic antibiotics
Blocks topoisomerase function
Specificity of Antineoplastic antibiotics
Cell-cycle non-specific
Example of an antineoplastic antibiotic
Doxorubicin
AE of doxorubicin (2)
- Cardiotoxic (Dose related)
- Extravasation
What enzyme is an anti-neoplastic?
L-asparaginase
Specificity of L-asparaginase
G1 phase
MoA of L-asparaginase
Deaminates asparagine
AE of L-asparaginase
Anaphylaxis
3 miscellaneous anti-neoplastics
- Toceranib
- Piroxicam
- Prednisone
MoA of Toceranib
Multi-kinase inhibitor
- Competitively binds to kinase site to prevent tumor cells from proliferating
MoA of piroxicam
COX inhibitor
S – DNA synthesis
G2 – pre-mitotic interval
M – mitosis
G1 - RNA and CNH synthesis
G0 - Mitotic arrest
S – DNA synthesis
G2 – pre-mitotic interval
M – mitosis
G1 - RNA and CNH synthesis
G0 - Mitotic arrest