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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do most mycotoxins affect?
Protein synthesis
Toxic agent of Amanita and Galerina
Alkaloids
Two methods of transmission of Amanita and Galerina
- Ingestion
- Inhalation
Major toxin of Amanita and Galerina
Muscarine
Five organ systems affected by Amanita and Galerina
- Liver
- Kidneys
- Skin (1* and 2* PS)
- CNS
- GIT
Primary species affected by Amanita and Galerina
Humans
Two species affected by Amanita and Galerina
- Humans
- Dogs
Tx of Amanita and Galerina (2)
- Activated charcoal
- Empty the stomach
Two Aflatoxins
- Aspergillus
- Penicillum
Primary organ affected by Aspergillus and Penicillum in dogs
Liver
Primary symptom of Aspergillus and Penicillum in bovines
'Poor doers'
DDx of Aspergillus and Penicillum
Anticoagulants and Rodenticides
Primary source of Aspergillus and Penicillum toxicity
Corn and storage problem
5 sources of Aspergillus and Penicillum in feed
- Corn
- Peanuts
- Pecans
- Cottonseed
- Dog food
4 species, by rank, affected by Aspergillus and Penicillum
K9 > Swine > Bov > Sheep
Tx of Aspergillus and Penicillum
Protect liver
Primary organ affected by Ocratoxin
Kidney
MoA of Ocratoxin
Inhibits mitochondria
Primary species affected by Ocratoxin
Swine
Primary symptom of Zearalenone
Vulvovaginitis
What fungus causes vulvovaginitis?
Zearalenone
Primary group affected by Zearalenone
Young, female pigs
Three TA of Tricothecene
- T-5 Toxin
- DAS
- DOS
MoA of Tricothecene
Inhibits protein synthesis
6 syndromes of Tricothecene
- Dermatonecrosis
- Vomition
- Feed refusal
- Bone marrow dyscrasia
- Carcinogenesis
- Reproductive effects
MoA of Tricothecene in pigs
Stimulates CRTZ
TA of Tremorgenic toxins
- Tremortin A
- Penitrem A
CS of Tremorgenic toxins
Saw Horse stance
What fungus causes a Saw Horse stance as a result of muscle rigidity?
Tremorgenic toxins
4 feed stuffs that Tremorgenic toxins is found in
- Dairy products
- Walnuts
- Peanuts
- Pecans
Primary species affected by Tremorgenic toxins
Dogs
DDx of Tremorgenic toxins
Strychnine
What fungus is Strychnine a DDx of?
Tremorgenic toxins
Tx of Tremorgenic toxins
Diazepam
What would be contraindicated in treatment of Tremorgenic toxins?
Emesis
What fungus causes the 'slobber factor'?
Slaframine
TA of Slaframine
Piperidine Alkaloid
MoA of Slaframine
Alkaloid activated by liver to parasympathomimetic agent
Clinical sign of Slaframine
Salivation
What plant is Slaframine associated with?
Trifolium spp. (Red Clover)
Two species affected by Slaframine
- Bovine
- Equine
Tx of Slaframine
Atropine
Problem with treatment of Slaframine with Atropine
Does not stop salivation
- Has to resolve on its own
Genus of the Blister Beetle? (2)
- Epicauta
- Pyrota
TA of Epicauta and Pyrota
Cantharidin
How is Cantharidin excreted?
Unchanged in urine
Why is Cantharidin rapidly absorbed?
Very lipid soluble
What is Cantharidin found in?
Infested hay
3 organs affected by Epicauta and Pyrota
- GIT
- Urogenital tract (kidney primarily)
- Heart
Primary CS of Epicauta and Pyrota
Thumps (synchronous diaphragmatic flutters)
Primary species affected by Epicauta and Pyrota
Equine
Tx of Epicauta and Pyrota (3)
- Fluids with calcium
- Activated charcoal
- Mineral oil
Primary element deficiency of Epicauta and Pyrota
Calcium
What is the nickname of Equine Leukoencephalomalacia?
Moldy Corn Poisoning
TA of Equine Leukoencephalomalacia
Fumonisin B
Primary lesion of Equine Leukoencephalomalacia in horses
Liquefactive necrosis of white matter
3 CS of Equine Leukoencephalomalacia
- Blindness
- Somnolence
- Inappetance
Primary CS of Moldy Corn Poisoning in pigs
Pulmonary edema
Two species affected by Moldy Corn Poisoning
- Equine primarily
- Pigs
Tx of Moldy Corn Poisoning
No treatment
Px of Moldy Corn Poisoning
Don't feed corn screenings to horses
Common name of Cyanophyta
Blue-Green Algae
4 organ systems affected by Cyanophyta spp.
- Nervous system
- GIT
- Liver
- Skin
What is the origin of toxins in Cyanophyta?
Metabolites of cyanobacteria
There is no 'tomain' poisoning
There is no 'tomain' poisoning
- Not entirely sure what this means..