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18 Cards in this Set

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electron configuration
describes the arrangement of electrons in an atom
valence electrons
the outermost shell electrons, involved in chemical reactions
quantum mechanical atom
-developed Bohr's model into a model where electrons are in specific locations. Wave properties of electrons conflict with specific location.
Schrodinger
-developed an equation that took wave-particle duality into account.
Schrodinger's equation
determines the probability of finding an electron in a specific region in space. Uses quantum numbers to predict energy.
types of quantum numbers
principle energy levels (n=1,2,3...)

sublevels defining wave function (s, p, d, f)

atomic orbitals defining position in space

spin, -1/2 or +1/2 (paired in an orbital)
Schrodinger's cat
our measurement of a particle depends on our intention, not an inherent property of the particle
principle energy level
n= 1, 2, 3...

the larger n is, the higher the energy level and farther away from the nucleus.
What is the electron capacity of a principle energy level
2(n)^2
sublevel
number of sublevels equal to n

a set of energy equal orbitals within a principle energy level. Subshells increase in energy (s<p<d<f)
orbital
a specific region of a sublevel containing a maximum of 2 electrons. Named by sublevel and principle energy level (1s, 2s, 3s, 2p, etc.)
orbital shapes
s is spherical
p is dumbbell
d is clover shaped
f is a flower, going 3 dimensions
subshells and the number of their orbitals
s, 1 orbital
p, 3 orbitals
d, 5 orbitals
f, 7 orbitals
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals
Aufbau principle
"building up" principle. Electrons fill the lowest level first.
Pauli Exclusion principle
no two electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers in an orbital. Two electrons must have the opposite spin from each other.
Hund's rule
each orbital in a subshell is filled half way before it is filled all the way.
Rules for writing electron configurations
-obtain the total number of electrons in an atom from the atomic number.
-electrons in atoms occupy the lowest energy orbitals first
-each principle energy level n contains only n sublevels
-the s sublevel has 1 orbital, p has 3, d has 5, f has 7
-no more than 2 electrons per orbital