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430 Cards in this Set

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What province of northern China did Japan invade in 1931?
Manchuria
Which of the following was not a feature of American involvement in World War II?
FDR agreed to a wartime alliance with the Soviet Union only after Stalin promised to rid his country of communism after the war.
The founder of Italian fascism who sent troops to invade and conquer Ethiopia was
Benito Mussolini.
Who of the following were known as the "Big Three?"
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin
Which of the following was not an effect of wartime mobilization on American society?
Americans of German descent were herded into internment camps, on the basis that their loyalties could not be trusted.
The mass extinction of "undesirable" peoples—Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, and, above all, Jews—that Hitler undertook in 1941, and that we now call the Holocaust, he called
the "final solution."
Executive Order 9066 led to Japanese-American internment during World War II. Define "internment."
the act of confining someone during wartime
According to Eric Foner, which of the following newspapers pointed out the discrepancy between American ideals of Democracy and civil rights reality of racial discrimination in the United States during World War II?
The Crisis
With the spread of what on college campuses, tens of thousands of students took part in a "strike for peace" in 1935?
pacifism
Which was not one of the Four Freedoms, President Roosevelt's shorthand for American purposes in World War II?
Freedom of Liberty
Which of the following was not a major thrust of the Four Freedoms promoted by FDR?
The only thing Americans have to fear is fear itself.
Which was not a goal or action of Adolf Hitler's?
He seized control of the Philippines and Malaysia.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt's foreign policy with regard to Latin American countries was called
the Good Neighbor Policy.
June 6, 1944, the day on which nearly 200,000 American, British, and Canadian soldiers landed in northwestern France, in Normandy, is known as
D-Day.
Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?
German annexation of Austria; Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact; Battle of Stalingrad; "Big Three" conference at Yalta
Which of the following was not a significant difference between the conservative and liberal visions for postwar America?
Conservatives regarded capitalism as essential to America's future; liberals regarded socialism as essential to America's future.
The congressional legislation that extended an array of benefits, including unemployment pay, educational scholarships, low-cost mortgage loans, pensions, and job training to millions of returning veterans beginning in 1944, was called
the Serviceman's Readjustment Act, or G.I. Bill of Rights.
A major success for Germany and its allies during World War II was
the "blitzkrieg" campaign.
The desire for both victory at home against segregation, and victory overseas against the Germans and the Japanese, came to be called this by African-Americans during World War II
the "double-V."
Franklin Delano Roosevelt "repudiated the right to intervene militarily in the internal affairs of Latin American countries," writes Eric Foner. Define "repudiated."
to cast off or disown; to reject with disapproval
During World War II, the Axis powers were
Germany, Italy, and Japan.
The branch of the federal government created in 1942 to mobilize public opinion, and that sought to make the conflict "a ‘people's war’ for freedom" was called
the Office of War Information.
Which of the following gatherings did not play a major role in the planning of the postwar international order?
the Munich conference
A key source of American reluctance to confront the rise of Nazism and fascism in Europe during the 1930s was
all of the above.
Which of the following leaders demanded that the Atlantic Charter, which would apply to non-European colonies and nations?
Winston Churchill
The self-confident woman, portrayed as fully capable of doing a man's job in posters and on magazine covers during World War II, was called
"Rosie the Riveter."
By 1944, the United States produced a plane every five minutes, and a ship every day.
T
The United States inflicted severe losses on the Japanese Navy in the Battle of Midway Island.
T
At least 20 million Russians died during World War II, both soldiers and civilians.
T
The America First Committee sought to ensure that America would be one of the first nations to enter the conflict against Adolf Hitler.
F
The "double-V" campaign stood for a double victory, one in the European Theatre and one in the Pacific Theatre.
F
Josef Stalin and Adolf Hitler were bitter enemies who could agree on nothing at the beginning of World War II.
F
As late as December 1944, more American military personnel were deployed in the Pacific theater of war than against Germany.
T
War mobilization lifted the industrial Northeast out of the Depression, but left the economies of the South and the West virtually untouched.
F
Unions became firmly established in many sectors of the economy during World War II.
T
Automotive manufacturing giant Henry Ford opposed United States involvement in World War II.
T
During World War II, the federal government spent twice the amount of money it had spent in all of the previous 150 years of American history.
T
During Germany's effort to seize Stalingrad beginning in August 1942, 800,000 Germans and 1.2 million Russians died in the fighting.
T
Germany suffered far higher casualties among its soldiers on the Western Front than it did on the Russian Front.
F
President Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066 ordered the internment of all Japanese-Americans who refused to sign an oath of loyalty to the United States.
F
During World War II, membership numbers for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) grew to approximately one-half million.
T
During World War II, 15 million American men served in the military, and 350,000 women served in auxiliary military units.
T
As the war drew to a close, tensions emerged among the Allied powers over Stalin's reluctance to allow self-rule in eastern Europe, and Churchill's reluctance to allow self-rule for Great Britain's colonies.
T
At Bataan in the Philippines, U.S. and Filipino forces captured 78,000 Japanese soldiers in the largest surrender in Japanese military history.
F
Eighty percent of Japan's oil came from the United States prior to 1941.
T
Senator Gerald P. Nye's 1934–1935 hearings demonstrated that bankers had suffered terrible economic setbacks during World War I.
Senator Gerald P. Nye's 1934–1935 hearings demonstrated that bankers had suffered terrible economic setbacks during World War I.
During World War II, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was probably more racially integrated than any labor organization since the Knights of Labor in the 1880s.
T
The term "blitzkrieg" means "lightning war."
T
War mobilization greatly strengthened the size and stature of the American labor movement.
T
In May 1942, the United States Navy thwarted a Japanese attack against Australia in the Battle of the Coral Sea.
T
With the coming of peace, women employed in war-related industries came under increasing pressure to leave their jobs and resume their role as homemakers.
T
By the late 1930s, Americans were nearly universally in favor of intervening militarily in Germany to stop the horrors being perpetrated against Jews and others by Adolf Hitler and his followers.
F
In World War I the French had been successful at keeping the invading German army out of Paris; in World War II, the French also succeeded in keeping the Nazis from occupying Paris.
F
During World War II, the NAACP and American Jewish Congress cooperated closely in advocating laws to ban discrimination in employment and housing.
T
The Roosevelt administration paid little attention to foreign affairs before the attack on Pearl Harbor.
F
Following America's entry into the war, the federal government assumed vast powers to oversee the national economy.
T
The Ford Motor Company employed slave labor provided by the German government.
T
Toward the end of World War II, evidence existed that Japanese officials would accept surrender if Emperor Hirohito could remain on his throne.
T
Most of the bloodshed that occurred in Europe during World War II took place on the eastern front.
T
The United Nations committee that drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was led by
Eleanor Roosevelt.
The "Dixiecrat" presidential ticket of 1948 was led b
Strom Thurmond.
Who was the person who sent the Long Telegram from Moscow in 1946 that lay the foundation for what became known as the policy of "containment"?
George F. Kennan
President Harry S. Truman's program that focused on improving the social safety net and raising the standard of living of ordinary Americans—calling on Congress to increase the middle wage, enact a program of national health insurance, and expand public housing, social security, and aid to education—was
the Fair Deal.
The 1950 National Security Council manifesto that called for a permanent military build-up to enable the United States to pursue a global crusade against communism, describing the Cold War as an epic struggle between "the idea of freedom" and the "idea of slavery under the grim oligarchy of the Kremlin" was
NSC-68.
The 1948 United Nations-approved document that called for a range of rights to be enjoyed by people everywhere, including freedom of speech and religion, as well as social and economic entitlements, including the right to an adequate standard of living, access to adequate housing, education, and medical care was called
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In June 1948, when the United States, Britain, and France introduced a separate currency in their zones of control in the city of Berlin, the Soviet Union responded with
the Berlin Blockade.
In the context of postwar Civil Rights, what major-league baseball player joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947 and by so doing challenged the longstanding exclusion of black players from major-league baseball?
Jackie Robinson
The young California congressman who first gained national prominence through his membership on the House Un-American Activities Committee was
Richard Nixon.
George Kennan was
the originator of the containment policy.
Which of the following was not a step toward racial equality in postwar America?
the defeat of Operation Dixie
Who was the United States senator from Wisconsin who announced in February 1950 that he had a list of 205 communists working for the State Department, and whose name later entered the political vocabulary as a shorthand for character assassination, guilt by association, and abuse of power in the name of anti-communism?
Joseph R. McCarthy
"Containment" in the context of post–World War II international diplomacy on the part of the United States referred to
the policy by which the United States committed itself to preventing any further expansion of Soviet power.
The Truman administration responded to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin by
leading efforts to break the blockade by airlifting supplies to the city.
The June 1947 United States foreign-policy initiative that envisioned a New Deal for Europe, and pledged billions of dollars to finance European economic recovery was
the Marshall Plan.
In 1949, the containment policy suffered a major setback in the form of
the "loss" of China to communism.
The first hot war of the Cold War—beginning in June 1950—took place in
Korea.
What was the 1947 law that sought to reverse gains made by organized labor in the preceding decade, and authorized the president to suspend strikes by ordering an 80-day cooling-off period, banned sympathy strikes and secondary boycotts, outlawed the closed shop, and authorized states to pass "right to work" laws?
the Taft-Hartley Act
Anti-Communism was used by the U.S. leaders to
all of the above.
What was the name of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) campaign to bring unionization to the South, by which more than 200 labor organizations entered the region in an effort to organize workers?
Operation Dixie
Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?
George Kennan's Long Telegram; unveiling of Truman Doctrine; start of Korean War; founding of Warsaw Pact
Which was not a development of 1949?
The Soviets formalized their own eastern European alliance, the Warsaw Pact.
Which of the following was not a dramatic feature of the 1948 presidential election?
lively debate between supporters and critics of the Korean War
Two outspoken critics of the domestic anticommunist crusade were
Paul Robeson and W. E. B. Du Bois.
Which of the following was not a key provision of the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act?
Unions cannot discriminate on the basis of race.
Which of the following was not a contributing factor behind the rise of the Cold War?
Churchill's call for the construction of a great wall between East and West Germany
Which is not true of the Korean War (1950–1953)?
President Truman acknowledged and accepted General MacArthur's push toward the Chinese border and his threat to use nuclear weapons against the Chinese.
Which of the following was not a common target of the anticommunist crusade?
laissez-faire conservatism
The Truman Doctrine, in March 1947,
asserted that the United States, as the leader of the "free world," must take up responsibility for supporting "freedom-loving peoples" wherever communism threatened them.
In 1950, a serious challenge to the containment policy occurred with
the invasion of South Korea.
George Kennan was a Soviet spy working in the American embassy in Moscow.
F
In Dennis v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that the imprisonment of communist leaders violated the right of free expression.
F
Although the United States was instrumental in the rebuilding of German industry, it did not significantly contribute to similar efforts in Japan.
F
President Harry Truman was defeated by Thomas Dewey in the election of 1948.
F
Race relations in the United States were a major ideological concern, and even an embarrassment, for American leaders during the Cold War.
T
As part of the cultural Cold War, the CIA secretly funded an array of overseas publications, conferences, publishing houses, concerts, art exhibits, and jazz performances.
T
In the atmosphere of the Cold War, the United States tended to define "human rights" in terms of political liberty, while the Soviet Union emphasized social and economic entitlements.
T
Republicans swept the congressional elections of 1946 to control both houses of Congress for the first time since the 1920s.
T
Under the Truman Doctrine, only those governments that respected the democratic rights of citizens and the sovereignty of other peoples could expect friendship and support from the United States.
F
By 1949, the world's largest country measured by land area (the Soviet Union), and the world's largest country by population (China) were both communist.
T
The Marshall plan sought to contain Soviet communism by promoting economic recovery and providing humanitarian aid.
T
"Dixiecrats" nominated Hubert Humphrey for President in 1948.
F
The first confrontation of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union occurred in the Middle East in Iran.
T
The Democratic Party platform of 1948 was the most progressive in the party's history.
T
Human rights and the notion of freedom were not a major focus of American leaders during the Cold War.
F
While the anticommunist hysteria of the postwar years came to be known as "McCarthyism," it arose well before Senator Joseph McCarthy entered the scene.
T
In the context of the Cold War, no matter how repressive a nation was, so long as it supported the United States it was counted as a member of the Free World.
T
Jackson Pollock's paintings were viewed as communistic by the CIA and defunded.
F
The term "iron curtain" was coined by President Harry Truman.
F
Comprised of the United States, Canada, and ten western European nations, the Warsaw Pact was launched as a collective deterrent against Soviet aggression.
F
In 1947, the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) launched hearings into communist influence in Hollywood, and, in consequence, actors, directors, and screenwriters were blacklisted or jailed.
T
American officials used anti-communist sentiment to investigate political dissenters and to otherwise widen their powers.
T
In July 1948, President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order desegregating the armed forces.
T
The 1946 congressional elections marked a resounding triumph for Truman's Fair Deal program.
F
The words "under God" were added to the Pledge of Allegiance in the 1950s in response to Soviet opposition to organized religion and to "strengthen our national resistance to communism."
T
George Kennan's Long Telegram provided an early formulation of the policy of "containment."
T
The term totalitarianism originated in Europe between the world wars to describe aggressive, ideologically driven states that sought to subdue all civil society, including churches, unions, and other voluntary associations.
T
The United States emerged from World War II as the world's greatest power; it had the world's most powerful navy and air force and accounted for half the world's manufacturing capacity.
T
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) quietly subsidized artists it considered useful in the "cultural Cold War."
T
Alger Hiss, an editor at Time magazine, accused Whittaker Chambers, a high-ranking State Department official, of giving him secret government documents to pass along to the Soviet Union.
F
The name for the small group of poets and writers who railed against mainstream culture, and that included Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg was
Beats.
Which of the following was not a key premise of American foreign policy during the Eisenhower years?
The United States will always respect the sovereignty of foreign democracies—even those whose policies we oppose.
In the aftermath of Rosa Parks's arrest for refusing to give her bus seat to a white rider, a year-long bus boycott took place in what city?
Montgomery, Alabama
Which was not part of the new "social contract" between organized labor and management in leading industries during the 1950s?
Unions sponsored "wildcat" strikes in an effort to discipline management.
Which of the following was not a prominent feature of suburban married life during the Fifties?
a growing tendency of husbands and wives to share the roles of breadwinner and homemaker
The 1954 update to the doctrine of containment, announced by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, that declared a Soviet attack on any American ally would be countered by a nuclear attack on the Soviet Union, was called "brinksmanship" by its critics and what by supporters?
massive retaliation
The wave of decolonization that began when India and Pakistan achieved independence in 1947, and by which, in the decades following World War II, Europe's centuries-old empires collapsed, witnessed the newly created Third World nations
resisting alignment with either major power bloc.
During the 1950s, the mass movement for civil rights found principal support among
the southern black church.
In 1953, Dwight Eisenhower brought to the presidency all of the following experiences, except
being chief executive officer of the General Electric Corporation.
The principal organization in the Southwest—the equivalent of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)—that challenged restrictions on housing and employment, as well as the segregation of Latino students was named
the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC).
In 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine
pledged the United States to defend Middle Eastern governments threatened by communism or Arab nationalism.
What was the landmark United States Supreme Court case decided on May 17, 1954, in which the Warren Court unanimously asserted that segregation in public education violated the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment?
Brown v. Board of Education
Which does not describe Rosa Parks in the years prior to her December 1, 1955, arrest?
She was a housewife, with no previous experience as a political activist.
What was the coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists that pressed for desegregation and was formed in 1955, and in whose organizing Martin Luther King, Jr., took the lead?
the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Which of the following was not a feature of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s, philosophy?
Black Americans must not try for full racial equality too quickly; before they achieve that, they must first prove their worthiness to all America.
In 1955, what percentage of non-agricultural workers were unionized?
35 percent
In the 1950s, Richard Nixon pioneered efforts to transform the Republican Party's image
from defender of business to champion of the "forgotten man," for whom heavy taxation had become a burden.
The National Defense Education Act, which for the first time offered direct federal funding for higher education, was passed into law by Congress in 1957 in response to
the Soviet launch of the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik.
The National Defense Education Act, which for the first time offered direct federal funding for higher education, was passed into law by Congress in 1957 in response to
the Soviet launch of the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik.
Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?
Geneva summit between Eisenhower and Khrushchev; Soviet invasion of Hungary; Khrushchev visit to United States; U-2 incident
Which of the following was not a key cause of the economic prosperity of the Fifties?
large income tax reductions
A leading voice of the Beats was
Allen Ginsberg.
What did President Eisenhower call his domestic agenda, which embraced a "mixed economy," in which the government played a major role in planning economic activity, and by which Eisenhower consolidated and legitimized the New Deal?
Modern Republicanism
Eric Foner writes, "the either-or mentality of the Cold War obscured the extent to which the United States itself fell short of the ideal of freedom." In this context, to what does "the either-or mentality" refer?
the notion that, in a polarized world, you were either for the United States or for the Soviet Union
Which was not one of the elements of "the power elite"—the interlocking directorate that dominated government and society in the 1950s—in the view of sociologist C. Wright Mills?
labor leaders
Which of the following was not a significant trend in 1950s America?
a surge of student radicalism on college campuses
Which of the following did not inform Martin Luther King, Jr.'s, 1950s leadership of the civil rights movement?
the writings of Malcolm X., particularly his autobiography
Dwight Eisenhower entered the presidency determined to dismantle the New Deal.
F
As part of the expansive and dynamic growth of the American economy, in the twenty years after 1950, about 7 million white Americans left cities for the suburbs, nearly 3 million blacks moved from South to North, and half a million Puerto Ricans moved to the mainland.
T
Government policies and expenditures played a crucial role in the postwar economic boom.
T
Prior to her arrest that led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rosa Parks had never been involved in National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) activism.
F
Richard Nixon's rise in politics was fueled in part by his ability to make free-market conservatism appealing to ordinary people.
T
For all of America's successes, by 1960 more than one in five Americans lived in poverty.
T
One strand of social analysis in the 1950s criticized the monotony of modern work, the emptiness of suburban life, and the pervasive influence of advertising.
T
In 1960, women earned, on average, 60 percent of the income of men.
T
World War II was followed in the United States by what has been called "a golden age" of capitalism; between 1946 and 1960, the nation's gross national product more than doubled.
T
During the 1950s, prominent psychologists insisted that women who were unhappy as housewives suffered from a failure to accept the "maternal instinct."
T
In the 1950s the number of houses in the United States doubled; most were built in the suburbs.
T
The suburban explosion of the 1950s did much to diminish racial divisions in America.
F
New York became the most prominent symbol of the postwar suburban boom; one fifth of the population growth of the 1950s occurred there.
F
In many ways, the economy and culture of the 1950s was dominated by the automobile.
T
By the mid-1960s, 25 million Americans owned shares of stock.
T
Although Americans in the 1950s grew more intensely religious, fewer than ever were affiliated with religious institutions.
F
Orval Faubus was among the attorneys on the team hired by the NAACP to pursue the watershed case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas.
F
It is a myth that children in the 1950s and 1960s were trained to hide under their desks in the event of an atomic attack.
F
In the consumer culture of the 1950s, the measure of freedom became the ability to gratify market desires.
T
During the 1950s, material consumption came more and more to eclipse economic independence and democratic engagement as the hallmarks of American freedom.
T
In the two decades following World War II, services—which had generally been enjoyed only by the rich or solidly middle class in the years before the war—including central heating, indoor plumbing, and electricity now became features of common life.
T
By 1960, almost 90 percent of American families owned television sets, average daily television viewing time was five hours, and television had proven itself the most effective advertising medium ever invented.
T
As president, Eisenhower sought to roll back the New Deal, abolish social security and unemployment insurance, and eliminate labor laws and farm programs.
F
In the decades following World War II, pluralism reigned supreme and the free exercise of religion was yet another way of differentiating the American way of life from that of life under communism.
T
During the 1950s, gay men and lesbians increasingly created their own subcultures in major cities.
T
Although it was a nationwide phenomenon, 1950s suburbanization gathered its greatest momentum in the West.
T
During the 1950s, the farm population rose from 15 million to 23 million, while agricultural production declined by 25 percent.
F
In the 1950s, the National Security Council advised President Eisenhower to use nuclear weapons in Vietnam.
T
In the post–World War II United States, Americans' daily lives were transformed by the widespread use of televisions, air conditioning, dishwashers, long-distance telephone calls, and jet travel.
T
In 1956, for the first time in American history, white-collar workers outnumbered blue-collar factory and manual laborers.
T
One strand of social analysis in the 1950s asserted that Americans were psychologically and culturally discontent, lonely and anxious, and yearning not so much for freedom as for stability and authority.
T
President Eisenhower hailed the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education as a positive move toward a more equal and just America; when a federal court ordered that Autherine Lucy be admitted to the University of Alabama in 1956, Eisenhower authorized the use of federal troops in her support.
F
The Brown decision encouraged an awakening of civil rights protest—and segregationist protest—in the South.
T
Cultural dissent was more conspicuous than political dissent during the 1950s.
T
The 1964 voter registration drive in Mississippi in which hundreds of white college students from the North participated was known as
Freedom Summer.
Which was not embraced by the "Black Power" movement of the mid-1960s?
expansion of interracial coalition-building in SNCC and CORE
Which was the organization that crafted The Port Huron Statement, criticized corporations, unions, and the military-industrial complex, and proclaimed "a democracy of individual participation"?
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
The 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited all of the following, except
racial discrimination in housing rental or sale.
What was the name for the 1965 immigration law that abandoned the national origins quota system, and established racially neutral criteria for immigration?
Hart-Cellar Act
What was the title of the 1963 book by Betty Friedan that took as its theme the emptiness of consumer culture, and painted the suburban home as a "comfortable concentration camp" for women?
The Feminine Mystique
Which of the following was not a common theme of the antiwar movement?
Communism is preferable to democracy, so why fight it?
Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?
Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique; founding of National Organization for Women; Sisterhood is Powerful; Roe v. Wade
What was the principal concern of John F. Kennedy's presidency?
the vigorous conduct of the Cold War
Which of the following was not a target of the conservative "backlash" of the late Sixties?
the growing power and militancy of organized labor
What was the organization created by the Kennedy administration to aid the economic and educational progress of developing countries?
the Peace Corps
What made the New Left new?
It called for a democracy of citizen participation.
Who was the leading African American known for his fiery oratory, insistence that blacks control the political and economic resources of their communities, and who was assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam after he formed his own Organization of Afro-American Unity?
Malcolm X
The organization that launched the Freedom Rides, by which integrated groups traveled by bus into the deep South to test compliance with court orders banning segregation on interstate buses and trains was called the
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).
What was the first gay rights organization in the United States, founded in 1951 by Harry Hay?
the Mattachine Society
Who was the marine biologist whose book, Silent Spring, spelled out how the insecticide DDT kills birds and other animals and causes sickness among humans, and who launched the modern environmental movement?
Rachel Carson
Which of the following was not a central purpose of President Johnson's Great Society program?
establishing a federally guaranteed annual income for every family
Which of the following was not one of the climactic moments of 1968?
the Berkeley Free Speech Movement
Who was the leader of the United Farm Workers (UFW)—as much a movement for civil rights as a campaign for economic betterment—who, beginning in 1965, led nonviolent protests, including fasts, marches, and a national boycott of California grapes?
Cesar Chavez
A leading motto of the Women's Liberation movement was
"the personal is political."
At the peak of the Vietnam war, the number of American troops in Vietnam was approximately
500,000.
Which was not a goal of the August 28, 1963 March on Washington?
an end to the use of the Grandfather Clause restricting suffrage
The 1968 Kerner Report blamed the widespread inner-city riots—occurring across the country from Harlem to Watts—on
segregation, poverty, and "white racism."
The organizer of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in April 1960 was
Ella Baker.
In The Conscience of a Conservative, Barry Goldwater argued for all of the following, except
support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
What was the April 1961 CIA-led invasion of Cuba to topple Fidel Castro that proved to be a total failure when, of the invading force of 1,400, 1,100 were captured and more than 100 killed?
Bay of Pigs
Which was not an event in the civil rights movement of 1963?
James Meredith, a black student, entered the University of Mississippi.
Which was not part of President Johnson's 1965–1967 "Great Society"?
the overturned Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee's goals included
replacing the culture of segregation with a "beloved community" of racial justice.
The gelatinous form of gasoline that burns the skin of anyone exposed to it, which was dropped by American airplanes on enemy positions during the Vietnam War, was called
napalm.
The organization demanding greater Indian tribal self-government and the restoration of economic resources guaranteed in treaties, founded in 1968, was called
the American Indian Movement.
In August 1961, the Berlin Wall was erected
by the Soviet Union so that peoples from Eastern Bloc countries could not flee to West Berlin.
The 1967 United States Supreme Court decision that declared unconstitutional the laws in sixteen states that prohibited interracial marriage was
Loving v. Virginia.
The United States Supreme Court ruling that an individual in police custody must be informed of the right to remain silent was
Miranda v. Arizona.
In June 1964, three young voting rights activists were murdered in Mississippi—James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner.
T
In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court struck down all laws discriminating against homosexuals as a violation of the right to privacy.
F
By the end of 1960, some 70,000 demonstrators had taken part in sit-ins across the nation; the tactic had its 1960s origins in the initiative of four students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University who, on February 1, 1960, sat down at a lunch counter in the local Woolworth's department store and asked to be served.
T
"Black Power" was a highly precise idea that asserted that only through revolutionary struggle for self-determination could black Americans achieve their rightful ends.
F
While serving a nine-day jail term in 1963 for violating a ban on demonstrations, Martin Luther King, Jr., wrote his eloquent plea for racial justice, Letter from a Birmingham Jail.
T
The centerpiece of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society was the endeavor to eradicate poverty.
T
The Civil Rights Bill and program of domestic liberalism launched by President Lyndon B. Johnson were far less ambitious than President Kennedy's initiatives on these matters.
F
Following a 1969 police raid on the Stonewall Bar, a gathering place for homosexuals in New York City's Greenwich Village, five days of rioting occurred and a militant gay rights movement was born.
T
With the sit-ins, college students stepped onto the stage of American history as a leading force for social change.
T
President Kennedy entered office determined to rid American foreign policy of its Cold War assumptions.
F
President Lyndon Johnson grew up in one of the wealthiest sections of United States—the central Texas Hill country.
F
The Vietnam War was the longest war in American history and the only war that the United States has lost.
T
The Free Speech movement was initiated at the University of Minnesota in 1964.
F
A key slogan of the Students for a Democratic Society was "participatory democracy."
T
Richard Nixon won the 1968 presidential election by the largest landslide in American history.
F
In his August 1963 speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial delivered to 250,000 black and white Americans, Martin Luther King, Jr., declared: "I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. '"
T
According to defenders of the Vietnam War, American military withdrawal would encourage the spread of communism elsewhere around the world.
T
The War on Poverty guaranteed an annual income to all Americans, created jobs for the unemployed, promoted unionization, and made it more difficult for businesses to shift production overseas.
F
The Greensboro lunch counter sit-in marked the first appearance of college students at the forefront of social protest in America.
T
The Twenty-Fourth Amendment to the Constitution is the 1965 law that allowed federal officials to register voters.
F
In the weeks following passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, a joyful calm, mixed with a great celebratory jubilee that included parades, barbecues, and church prayer meetings characterized the principal response of inner city African Americans to the new law.
F
President Kennedy's policy toward Latin America, the Alliance for Progress, failed because the money, as distributed, enriched military regimes and local elites.
T
Johnson's Great Society failed to reduce poverty in America to any significant degree.
F
President Johnson entered office determined to see a substantial civil rights bill passed by Congress.
T
As president of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson never forgot the poor Mexican and white children he had taught in a Texas school in the early 1930s.
T
By 1968, the United States had more than a half million troops stationed in Vietnam.
T
In the "counterculture" of the 1960s there was, for the first time in American history, a rejection of respectable norms of clothing, language, and sexual behavior.
T
President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society's War on Poverty required poor people to play a leading part in designing and implementing local policies.
T
In a single week in June 1963, more than 15,000 people were arrested in 186 cities across the United States in civil rights demonstrations.
T
Although the media came to derisively label radical feminists "bra burners," no bras were ever actually burned.
T
From 1973 to 1993, real wages
essentially did not rise.
President Richard Nixon sought to replace the polarized and hostile relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union with a new era of "peaceful coexistence" called
détente
The 1960 statement drafted by young conservatives, members of Young Americans for Freedom (YAF), which asserted that the free market underpinned "personal freedom" and that international communism posed a grave menace to American liberty was called
the Sharon Statement.
Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?
announcement of President Nixon's "Vietnamization" policy; U.S. invasion of Cambodia; publication of Pentagon Papers; War Powers Act
Which of the following was not a major theme raised by critics of Reagan's presidency?
He appears more interested in safeguarding the environment than in safeguarding the nation from communism.
"Stagflation" refers to
stagnant economic growth and high inflation.
What was the name for the plan by which, beginning in 1969, President Nixon gradually drew down the number of American troops in Vietnam, saying they would be replaced by South Vietnamese soldiers?
"Vietnamization"
Which of the following was not a key factor behind President Carter's 1980 reelection defeat?
a general feeling that Carter was morally corrupt and hopelessly indifferent to the concerns of the people
Tom Wolfe dubbed the 1970s, a time in which "lifestyle" emerged in depoliticized form, the
"Me Decade."
A major initiative of the Carter administration was the
Panama Canal treaty.
Which of the following developments did not help undermine public faith in the effectiveness of federal government?
the Camp David agreement
Which of the following issues was not a focus of political conflict during the Seventies?
federal programs addressing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Which of the following was not a central theme of the Reagan revolution?
Military spending has grown far too lavish and must be reduced.
An indication of America's economic troubles during the 1970s was
all of the above.
Which was not a reason that Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) rolls expanded rapidly during the 1960s?
The federal government quintupled AFDC payments to individual recipients.
Which was not one of the conservative ideas that informed Barry Goldwater's campaign for the presidency in 1964, and shaped conservatism for years thereafter?
a call for expansion of governmental regulations
The movement to reverse the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision was supported by all of the following except
feminists.
What was 1978 Supreme Court decision that rejected the idea of fixed affirmative action quotas, but allowed that institutions of higher learning could use race as one factor among many in admissions decisions?
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Which is not central to libertarian conservatism?
regulatory controls
What was the 1979 organization created by Virginia minister Jerry Falwell, devoted to waging a "war against sin" and electing "pro-life, pro-family, pro-America," candidates?
Moral Majority
Which was not one of President Nixon's apparent motivations in the context of his administration's Philadelphia Plan, and its promotion of "affirmative action"?
He sought to garner the support of white working class voters for the Republican Party in initiating the Philadelphia Plan.
Evangelical Christians of the Religious Right believe that, too often, American culture seems to trivialize religion and promote immorality, and demanded the Supreme Court reverse decisions in all of the following, except
the overly easy access to divorce.
Conservatives in the Republican Party found Richard Nixon much to their liking.
F
During the 1970s, the divorce rate soared; by 1975 it was twice what it had been a decade earlier.
T
President Richard Nixon, a Republican, accepted and even expanded many elements of Lyndon Baines Johnson's Great Society.
T
Upon entering office, President Nixon surprised many people by calling a rapid halt to American military involvement in Vietnam.
T
President Nixon resigned the office of the presidency in 1974, in the wake of the Watergate scandal and cover-up.
T
By 1979, there were thousands of local gay rights groups across the United States.
T
Like a strong majority of women across the United States, Phyllis Schlafly was an adamant supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment, which was designed to remove the legal ability to discriminate "on account of sex."
F
Upon entering office, President Nixon surprised many people by retaining numerous aspects of Lyndon Johnson's Great Society program.
F
The 1970s was one of only two decades (the other was the 1930s) in the twentieth century that ended with American workers on average poorer than when it began.
T
In 1972 Congress approved Title IX, which banned gender discrimination in higher education.
T
By the end of President Reagan's two terms in office, American conservatism was a spent force—its agenda, after all, had been completely fulfilled.
F
The number of workers employed in the manufacturing sector of the United States economy rose sharply during the 1970s.
F
The controversy over Roe v. Wade was a political hotbed that affected a range of issues from battles over nominees to judicial positions and led to demonstrations at family-planning and abortion clinics.
T
Libertarians desire strong, activist national government.
F
The Vietnam War was a military, political, and social disaster, and the only war the United States has ever lost.
T
By the mid-1970s—in consequence of women's changing aspirations and the availability of birth control and legal abortions—the American birthrate declined dramatically.
T
By the end of the 1970s, the civil rights and sexual revolutions led to a nation overwhelmingly in favor of the Democratic Party's political agenda.
F
As president, Richard Nixon expanded the welfare state, while also calling for law and order.
T
In 1978, California voters approved Proposition 13, which banned further increases in property taxes and reduced funds for schools, libraries, and other public services.
T
It is a myth that United States soldiers killed 350 South Vietnamese civilians in the My Lai massacre of 1968.
F
Although the Republicans held onto the White House in the election of 1988, "liberalism" regained its stature that year as the nation's dominant ideology.
F
The Senate's Church Committee concluded that many of America's problems would be solved if people would attend church more frequently.
F
"Neoconservatives" came to believe that well-intentioned government social programs did more harm than good. In many cases, welfare, for example, not only did not alleviate poverty, but it actually encouraged single motherhood and undermined the work ethic.
T
According to Eric Foner, during the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States, unlike during the Great Depression, economic distress inspired a critique of government rather than of business.
T
The economic recession of the 1970s undercut the living standards and collective power of American labor.
F
While libertarian conservatives spoke the language of progress and personal autonomy, the "new conservatives" emphasized tradition, community, and moral commitment; and herein lay the origins of the division in conservative ranks.
T
Resentment over local initiatives to desegregate public schools was an important part of the conservative groundswell of the 1970s.
T
By 1970, African Americans, while about 12 percent of the population, accounted for nearly 50 percent of all welfare recipients.
T
In 1960, only 20 percent of women with young children had been in the workforce; the figure reached 55 percent in 1990.
T
Discredited by the Watergate scandal, the Republican Party did not recover its momentum for another ten years.
F
President Jimmy Carter's emphasis on human rights and his continuation of the policies of détente meant that, by the end of his presidency, relations with the Soviet Union were vastly improved and the Salt II Treaty had been implemented.
F
President Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger continued President Lyndon Johnson's policy of attempting to undermine governments deemed dangerous to American strategic or economic interests.
T
In the spring of 1970 more than 350 colleges and universities experienced student strikes, and troops occupied 21 campuses in protest over the Vietnam War.
T
Neoconservatives strongly supported America's efforts in the Cold War.
T
By the 1990s, public schools in the North were considerably more segregated than those in the South.
T
Both foreign-policy "realists" and conservative Cold Warriors applauded President Jimmy Carter's emphasis on human rights.
F
The Reagan administration conducted a massive expansion of military spending during the 1980s.
T
"New conservatives" such as Russell Kirk wanted government expelled from the economy but trusted government to regulate personal behavior to restore a Christian morality in a society they believed was growing weaker morally.
T
Which was not true of Bill Clinton?
He had served in Vietnam.
The Christian Coalition was founded by evangelical minister
Pat Robertson.
Who was the African-American chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff who, in the early 1990s, argued that the United States should not commit its troops abroad without clear objectives and a timetable for withdrawal?
Colin Powell
Pat Buchanan delivered a speech at the 1992 Republican national convention that declared cultural war against all the following, except
the Christian Right.
In the 1992 run for the presidency, Bill Clinton held all of the following views, except
he pledged to fulfill the unfulfilled promise of Johnson's Great Society.
Which of the following was not a significant aftereffect of the 1990s computer revolution?
a bridging of the gulf between affluent and poor
In what year did the Soviet Union cease to exist and, in its place, fifteen new independent nations arise?
1991
In February 1991, the United States launched Operation Desert Storm as part of the Gulf War and quickly drove the Iraqi army from what country?
Kuwait
What occurred in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China in April 1989?
Tens of thousands of students, joined by workers, teachers, and some government officials, occupied the square and demanded greater democracy in China.
Which of the following was not a key element of the Republican "Contract with America"?
sharper restrictions on the sale of handguns
Which United States president first spoke of the coming of a "new world order"?
George H. W. Bush
During what years did the Berlin Wall, the most prominent symbol of the Cold War, divide East and West Berlin?
1961–1989
Which of the following was not a major demographic trend in 1990s America?
a growing volume of emigration from the United States to Europe
In 1994, the Republican Party won control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the 1950s; they proclaimed their triumph the "Freedom Revolution," and Newt Gingrich, a conservative congressman from Georgia, masterminded their platform, which was called
"Contract with America."
The collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe occurred during what years?
1989–1991
The longest uninterrupted period of economic expansion in the nation's history took place during what years?
1991–2000
The 1990s Christian Coalition became a major force in Republican Party politics and launched crusades against all of the following, except
creationism.
By the year 2000, what percentage of all marriages ended in divorce?
50 percent
What third-party candidate received 19 percent of the popular vote in the 1992 presidential election, the best result for a third-party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt in 1912?
Ross Perot
Who won the popular vote in the presidential election of 2000?
Al Gore
Who won the Cold War?
United States and its allies
In 2000, the largest employer in America was
Wal-Mart.
A leading slogan of cultural conservatism in the 1990s was
"Family values."
In line with their 1994 platform, Republicans in the United States House of Representatives moved swiftly to approve deep cuts in all of the following, except
the military.
Which of the following was not a policy adopted by the federal government during the Clinton years?
universal health care
Which of the following was not a key trend in world affairs during the 1990s?
an easing of ethnic and religious tensions
Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?
Clinton electoral victory over George Bush; defeat of Clinton health plan; passage of welfare reform; release of Starr report
In 1996, President Clinton signed a Republican bill into law, abolishing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and replacing it with a system of grants of money to states, with strict limits on how long recipients could receive payments.
T
The impeachment of Clinton failed to win the support of most Americans.
T
After recovering from the recession of 1990–1991, the United States economy continued to expand for the rest of the decade; the boom became the longest uninterrupted period of economic expansion in American history.
T
During the economic upturn of the 1990s, the inequitable distribution of wealth in the United States dropped sharply, as the index of inequality registered a democratic leveling out of American incomes.
F
The Enron Corporation became famous in the 1990s for its leading part in the computer revolution, especially in software.
F
The largest one-day drop in stock prices in history occurred on April 14, 2000.
T
The United Nations endorsed the U.S. invasion of Panama but denounced Operation Desert Storm.
F
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, more than 7 million American families lived in gated communities.
T
In 1994, tribal massacres rocked Rwanda, in central Africa. Over 800,000 people were slaughtered and the United States sent in a massive military force in an effort to staunch the flow of blood.
F
The growth of public tolerance of homosexuality was among the most striking changes in American social attitudes in the last 20 years of the 20th century.
T
The stock market boom of the late 1990s was fueled in part by high-level corporate fraud.
T
In the 1990s, blacks predominated among the growing ranks of incarcerated Americans.
T
As president, Bill Clinton opposed his predecessor's passion for free trade, believing instead that regulatory tariffs would ensure higher standards of living for American workers.
F
In his January 1996 State of the Union address, President Bill Clinton announced that "the era of big government is over," and, in effect, turned his back on the tradition of Democratic Party liberalism and embraced the antigovernment outlook associated with Republicans since the days of Barry Goldwater.
T
By the early twenty-first century, more than one in four black men could expect to serve time in prison at some time during their lives.
T
During the 1990s, religion in the United States lost much of its appeal, as a secular culture based on consumption and mass entertainment dominated American society.
F
By 2000, more than 10 percent of the American population was foreign born.
T
During the 1990s presidents George Bush and Bill Clinton both asserted the view that America should embrace the mission of creating a single global free market as a path to greater worldwide freedom.
T
By 2000, 23 states had passed laws establishing English as their official language.
T
Bill Clinton was the first Democrat to win reelection to the presidency since Franklin D. Roosevelt.
T
By 2000, more than 3 million Muslims resided in the United States.
T
During the 1991 Gulf War, President George H. W. Bush's approval rating reached 89 percent, but the next year, he lost the presidential election.
T
In 1992, unemployment rose as family income stagnated.
T
In the early 1990s, in an effort to stop "ethnic cleansing," the United States and its NATO allies, after considerable indecision, launched airstrikes against Bosnian Serb forces.
T
As late as 1940, a third of American households did not have running water.
T
In 1900, the average annual income of Americans was $3,000 in today's dollars.
T
Following the Republican electoral sweep of 1994, President Clinton vowed to defend the heritage of New Deal liberalism.
F
In western Europe and Canada, governments provide universal medical coverage for all citizens, but in the United States there was—in the 1900s and early 2000s—no universal medical coverage.
T
The protesters assembled at the 1999 meeting of the World Trade Organization in Seattle represented a striking mix of industrial workers and environmentalists.
T
President Bill Clinton was impeached but not convicted or removed from office.
T
In the 2000 election, George W. Bush won the popular vote, but lost the electoral vote to Al Gore.
F
By 2000, more than 400,000 Americans had died of HIV/AIDS.
T
Between 2000 and 2002, the price of NASDAQ stocks fell by nearly 80 percent.
T
In the 1990s, the vast majority of Latinos in America were poor, and the vast majority of Asian-Americans were affluent.
F
In 2000, more than half of the labor force in the United States worked for less than $14 an hour.
T
Between 1977 and 1999, the United States executed 598 people.
T
In 1994, Californians approved Proposition 187, which denied illegal immigrants and their children access to welfare, education, and health services.
T
By 2001, more than a third of African Americans lived in the suburbs.
T
On September 11, 2001, planes controlled by terrorists crashed into all of the following except
a bridge in Washington, D.C.
A widespread response shown by Americans in the immediate aftermath of September 11 was
all of the above.
What country remained, in the early twenty-first century, the richest country in the world in all of human history?
United States
Which of the following was not a significant point of dispute between supporters and opponents of the American war in Iraq?
whether Saddam Hussein was a humane and popular leader
On the morning of September 11, 2001 as the top floors of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were engulfed in flames by the terrorist attack, hundreds of New York City firefighters and police
rushed into the towers in a rescue effort, and lost their lives when the towers collapsed.
Which of the following was not a focus of political debate during the first term of the Bush administration?
the importance of improving airport security
Which of the following was not a major theme of global alienation over Bush foreign policy?
When it comes to challenging brutal dictators, Bush is all talk and no action.
Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?
Al Qaeda bombing of U.S. embassies in Africa; Bush declaration of "war on terrorism"; Bush declaration of war on Afghanistan; Bush's "axis of evil" speech
The USA PATRIOT Act conferred all of the following powers on law enforcement agencies except
the necessity of obtaining a judicial warrant prior to spying on citizens.
In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, a new department in the federal government was created to coordinate efforts to improve security at home, called the
Department of Homeland Security.
What is the name of the terrorist organization responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 Americans?
Al Qaeda
Who was the leader of Al Qaeda in 2001?
Osama bin Laden
Which of the following U.S. presidents signed a $700 billion bank bailout, citing that these financial institutions were "too big to fail?"
George W. Bush
In October 2001, the United States launched a war named "Enduring Freedom" against the Taliban in
Afghanistan.
Which of the following was not a new theme of American foreign policy announced by the Bush administration after September 11?
Now more than ever, America must honor the constraints of multilateral cooperation and international law.
Which was not a terrorist attack on the United States undertaken by Al Qaeda?
the October 1985 killing of an American aboard an Italian cruise ship
Which of the following was not a significant domestic development during the opening decade of the twenty-first century?
a steady rise in the level of federal taxes paid by wealthy Americans
The first woman Speaker of the United States House of Representatives was
Nancy Pelosi.
In March 2003, with Great Britain as its sole significant ally, President Bush sent the U.S. military to attack Iraq, calling the war
"Operation Iraqi Freedom."
Iraq possesses
the world's second-largest reserves of oil.
Which was not one of the three countries identified by president of the United States George W. Bush as an "axis of evil"?
Afghanistan
In his run for the presidency of the United States, George W. Bush referred to himself as a
"compassionate conservative."
In September 2002, the Bush administration released a document called the National Security Strategy, which announced a new foreign-policy principle called
"preemptive" war.
What was the 2003 Supreme Court decision declaring unconstitutional a Texas law making homosexual acts a crime?
Lawrence v. Texas
Who was the oldest man ever to run for U.S. president?
John McCain
The three nations alleged by President Bush to constitute an "axis of evil" were
Iran, Iraq, and North Korea.
Terrorism may be defined as the targeting of civilian populations by violent organizations who hope to spread fear for a political purpose.
T
Evidence of global warming first surfaced in the 1990s when scientists studying layers of ice in Greenland concluded that the earth’s temperature had risen significantly during the past century.
T
After the Gulf War of 1991, Osama bin Laden declared war on America.
T
President George W. Bush made "freedom" the rallying cry for a nation at war following the attacks of September 11, 2001.
T
By mid-2008, the yearly savings of the average family amounted to less than $400.
T
The Republicans achieved significant gains during the congressional elections of 2002.
T
By the early twenty-first century, the United States was the world's only superpower.
T
The United States and Iraq reached an agreement of complete removal of American troops by 2011 in the last months of George W. Bush’s presidency.
T
An immense influx of cheap goods from Europe slowed down the loss of manufacturing jobs in the United States and enabled Americans to keep buying.
F
During the lead-up to the war in Iraq, relations between the United States and France became increasingly strained.
T
Following September 11, Attorney General John Ashcroft asserted that critics of the Bush administration were assisting the terrorists.
T
Obama was not the first black candidate to win the nomination of a major party.
F
Although many nations around the world strongly opposed the prospect of an American invasion of Iraq, most came to acknowledge the wisdom of the war following the fall of Hussein.
F
In 2001, President George W. Bush persuaded Congress to enact the largest tax cut in American history.
T
In the year after September 11, evidence emerged of links between Al Qaeda and the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein.
F
President George W. Bush strongly supported the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, which sought to combat global warming.
F
In the initial stages of the 2003 Iraqi War, fewer than 200 American soldiers died; Iraqi civilian and military casualties were far higher but remained uncounted.
T
Sarah Palin was the first woman vice presidential candidate on a U.S. major political party ticket.
F
The federal deficit steadily diminished during Bush's first term.
F
In the early twenty-first century, as the American people confronted the threat of terrorism, the need to properly balance freedom and security remained a central issue.
T
The 2003 Iraqi War marked a new departure from American foreign policy; previously, the United States had been reluctant to use force outside the Western Hemisphere except as part of an international coalition.
T
In the early twenty-first century the United States far outpaced the rest of the world in every index of power—military, economic, and cultural.
T
Global warming is caused when gases released by burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil remain in the upper atmosphere, trapping heat reflected from the earth.
T
In 2003, the United States accounted for just under one-third of global economic output, and more than one-third of global military spending.
T
Before becoming president, George W. Bush had been an executive in the oil industry.
T
The Kyoto Protocol sought to combat world banking failure.
F
Sonia Sotomayor was the first Hispanic and third woman in history to serve on the United States Supreme Court.
T
In the aftermath of the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the country experienced a renewed feeling of common social purpose.
T
In March 2010, Congress passed a sweeping health-care bill that required all Americans to purchase health insurance and most businesses to provide it to their employees.
T
In November 2001, the Bush administration issued an executive order authorizing the holding of secret military tribunals for non-citizens deemed to have assisted terrorism.
T
By 2009, one poll showed that of various social groups, bankers ranked third from the bottom in public esteem.
T
Bush also proposed changes in environmental policies, including opening Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to drilling for oil and allowing timber companies to operate in national forests, claiming that this would reduce forest fires.
T
In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, the U.S. Supreme Court considered the lawsuit of Yasir Hamdi, an American citizen who had moved to Saudi Arabia and been captured in Afghanistan. Hamdi was imprisoned in a military jail in South Carolina without charge or the right to see a lawyer; and the Supreme Court ruled that he had a right to a judicial hearing regardless of the nation being in "a state of war."
T
Following September 11, President Bush called on the world community to support and invigorate the International Criminal Court.
F
In Rasul v. Bush, the U.S. Supreme Court allowed a British citizen held at Guantànamo Bay, Cuba, to challenge his incarceration in federal court.
T