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81 Cards in this Set

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What are the four major electrolytes?
-Sodium
-Potassium
-Magnesium
-Calcium
What is the normal range of Sodium in the ECF?
135-145 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Sodium in the ICF?
10 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Potassium in the ECF?
3.5-5 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Potassium in the ICF?
140 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Magnesium in the ECF?
1.5-2.5 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Magnesium in the ICF?
40 mEq/L
What is the normal range of total serum Calcium?
8.9-10.1 mg/dL (total)
What is the normal range of ionized Calcium?
4.5-5.1 mg/dL (ionized)
What is the distribution of water in the ICF?
2/3 of body water, 40% body weight
What is the distribution of water in the ECF?
1/3 of body water, 20% of body weight.
interstitial - 15% fluid between cells
intravascular - 5% plasma and lymph
Which electrolyte:

Helps preserve ECF volume & fluid distribution. Helps transmit impulses in nerve and muscle fibers; combines with chloride and bicarbonate to regulate acid-base balance
Sodium Na+
Which electrolyte:

Maintains cell's electrical neutrality and osmalality; Aides neuromuscular transmission of nerve impulses; Assists skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction and electrical conductivity; Affects acid base; Body cannot conserve
Potassium K+
Which electrolyte:

Promotes enzyme reactions within cell during carbohydrate metabolism; Helps body produce & use ATP for energy; Takes part in protein synthesis; Influences vasodilation; Regulates muscle contractions; Effects parathyroid hormone.
Magnesium Mg+
Which electrolyte:

Helps maintain cell structure and function; plays a role in cell membrane permeability and impulse transmission; Contraction of cardiac, smooth muscle, & skeletal muscle; Participates in blood clotting process
Calcium Ca+
Pushes water out of the capillary into interstitial spaces.
Capillary Filtration Pressure
Pulls water back into the capillary.
Capillary Colloidal Osmotic Pressure
Opposes the movement of water out of the capillary.
Interstitial Hydrostatic Pressure
Pulls water out of the capillary into interstitial spaces.
Tissue Colloidal Osmotic Pressure
osmotic pressure
osmolarity
hydrostatic pressure
blood pressure
movement between plasma and ISF
capillary exchange
movement between ECF and ICF
sodium, infusion of isotonic, glucose, or hypertonic solution
hormone which helps regulate Sodium Balance
Aldosterone
ECF loss
hypovolemia
excess ICF
hypervolemia
excess interstitial fluid
Edema
What is evident when interstitial volume > 2-3L?
Edema
These are manifestations of ______ ?

-weight gain
-weakness
-bounding pulse
-distended veins
-polyuria
-ascites
early edema
These are manefestations of _______ ?

-puffy eyes in AM
-orthopnea(Discomfort in breathing that is relieved by sitting or standing in an erect position.
-increase CVP(central veinous pressure)
-cough/dyspnea(difficulty breathing)
-decreased exercise t
late edema
Causes of ______ ?

-Increased capillary filtration pressure (excess fluid volume)
-Decreased capillary colloidal Osmotic pressure (decrease in plasma proteins)
Edema
In the Renin Angiotensin Aldosteron System what does Angiotensin stimulate?
Thirst and vasoconstriction
In the Renin Angiotensin Aldosteron System what does Aldosterone stimulate?
Na+ and H2O retention
Causes of ______ ?

-decrease in ECF
-increase in serum osmolality
-release of ADH(anti-diuretic hormone)
Thirst
Where are the neuroreceptors for thirst?
Hypothalamus
What hormone stimulates thirst?
Angiotensin II [RAAS-of the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System]
These are causes of ______ ?

- Inadequate fluid intake(comatose, disoriented)
- vomiting
- diarrhea
- diuretic therapy
- Addison's Disease
- Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Fluid Volume Deficit
These are manefestations of ______ ?

-Neurologic
-Renal
-Mucous membranes
-Musculoskeletal
-Integumentary
-Metabolic processes
-Cardiovascular
Fluid Volume Deficit
What are the 4 types of Edema?
-Generalized
-Anasarca
-Third spacing
-Lymphedema
What is the most abundant electrolyte in the ECF?
Sodium
What is the deficiency of sodium in relation to water (body fluids diluted)?
Hyponatremia
What is the overabundance of sodium in relation to water (body fluids saturated)?
Hypernatremia
Which type of edema is this?

-usually related to excess vascular volume
-expansion of both the interstitial and intracellular fluid compartments (effects of gravity evident)
Generalized edema
Which type of edema is this?

-Generalized massive edem involving all parts of the body, including the genitalia, chest wall, and arms
Anasarca
Which type of edema is this?

-Accumulation of fluid outside the vasc. compartment that is NOT the interstitial space.
-Fluids not available for metabolic processes
-ascites of fluid in the serous cavities(pericardial sac, peritoneal cavity, pleural cavity)
Third Spacing
Which type of edema is this?

-Edema in the interstitial space caused by blocked lymphatic vessels, which normally drain the tissues
Lymphedemia
Effects of ______ ?

-Serum osmalality decreases because of decrease in sodium concentration
-Change in mental status
-Late effects = stupor, neuromuscular excitability, convulsions, coma and death.
Hyponatremia
Causes of :

-Drug therapy
- inappropriate fluid placement
-SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate Diuretic Hormone)
Hyponatremia
Effects of _______ ?

-Thirst
-Confusion
-Neuromuscular excitability
-Seizures
-Coma
-flushed skin
-low grade fever
Hypernatremia
Causes of ______ ?

-Water loss
-Inadequate water intake
-Sodium gain
Hypernatremia
A condition of the blood and other body fluids in which the bicarbonate concentration is above normal.
Alkalosis
-An abnormally high acid (hydrogen ion) concentration in blood plasma.
-When the blood pH value is less than 7.35, the patient is in acidosis.
Acidosis
Abnormally high concentration of potassium in the blood.
Hyperkalemia
Abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood.
Hypokalemia
Causes of ______ ?

-Decreased renal elimination
-rapid, excessive potassium administration
-movement of ICF to ECF compartment
Hyperkalemia
Manifestations of ______ ?

-neuromuscular weakness and cramps
-paresthesias (a skin sensation, such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling, with no apparent physical cause)
-Anorexia, nausia
-Polyuria
-Alt. in NM excitability
-N/V, Diarrhea
-Weakness
-Dizziness
Hyperkalemia
Manifestations of ______ ?:

-Altered membrane potentials on CV, NM, & GI function
-Postural hypotension
-Dysrhythmias
-Metabolic alkalosis
Hypokalemia
What is the range of Phosphate in the system?
2.5-4.5 mg/dL
What is the % of K in ICF / % in ECF?
98% / 2%
What is the % of Ca in ICF / % in ECF?
1% / 1%
What is the % of Mg in ICF / % in ECF?
39% / 1%
Where is Na excreted?
kidney
where is K excreted?
kidney, skin, GI tract
where is Ca excreted?
kidney, protein binding
where is Mg excreted?
kidney
where is P excreted?
kidney
Causes of ______ ?

- Heart Failure
- Nephrotic Syndrome
- Hepatic Cirrhosis
- Sepsis
- Some medications
Fluid Volume Excess
Manifestations of ______ ?

- Polyuria
- weight gain
- Bounding pulse
- Distended veins

Late
- Orthopnea
- Dyspnea
- decreased exercise tolerance
Fluid Volume Excess
Causes of ______ ?

- inadequate intake
- excessive loss through kidney, skin, or GI tract
- Redistributed between ICF and ECF compartments
Hypokalemia
Causes of ______ ?

- abnormal loss of Ca from kidneys
- impaired ability to move Ca bone stores
- increased protein binding
Hypocalcemia
Manifestations of ______ ?

- parasthesias
- cramps
- hyperactive reflexes
- tetany
- hypotension
- bone pain
Hypocalcemia
Causes of ______ ?

- Ca movement in the circulation overwhelms the Ca reg. hormones of the ability of the kidney to remove excess calcium ions
Hypercalcemia
Manifestations of ______ ?

- polyuria
- increased thirst
- flank pain
- muscle weakness
- Ataxia
- personality and behavior change
- anorexia
- constipation
Hypercalcemia
Causes of ______ ?

- intestinal malabsorption
- Vit. D deficiency
- use of Mg & antacids
- long term alcohol abuse (ETOH)
- increase renal excretion
Hypophosphatemia
Manifestations of ______ ?

- paresthesias
- muscle weakness
- bone pain
- muscle pain & tenderness
- confusion, LOC
- seizures
- anorexia/dysphagia
- decrease bowel sounds
- acute resp. failure
Hypophosphatemia
Causes of ______ ?

- long term use of P containing enemas or laxatives
- hypoparathyroidism
Hyperphosphatemia
Manifestations of ______ ?

- related to low Ca lvl symptoms
- circumoral and peripheral paresthesias
- muscle spasms
- tetany
- soft tissue calcification
Hyperphosphatemia
Causes of ______ ?

- insufficient intake
- excessive loss
- movement between ICF & ECF compartments
- diarrhea
- malabsorption syndromes
- chronic alcoholism
Hypomagnesemia
Manifestations of ______ ?

- personality change
- nystagmus
- tetany
- tachycardia
- dysrhythmias
- hypertension
Hypomagnesemia
Causes of ______ ?

- Renal insufficiency
- antacids
- mineral supplements
- laxatives
Hypermagnesemia
Manifestations of ______ ?

- lethargy
- hyporeflexia
- confusion
- coma
- hypotension
- dysrhythmias
Hypermagnesemia