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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the four major electrolytes?
What is the normal range of Sodium in the ECF?
135-145 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Sodium in the ICF?
10 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Potassium in the ECF?
3.5-5 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Potassium in the ICF?
140 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Magnesium in the ECF?
1.5-2.5 mEq/L
What is the normal range of Magnesium in the ICF?
40 mEq/L
What is the normal range of total serum Calcium?
8.9-10.1 mg/dL (total)
What is the normal range of ionized Calcium?
4.5-5.1 mg/dL (ionized)
What is the distribution of water in the ICF?
2/3 of body water, 40% body weight
What is the distribution of water in the ECF?
1/3 of body water, 20% of body weight.
interstitial - 15% fluid between cells
intravascular - 5% plasma and lymph
Which electrolyte:

Helps preserve ECF volume & fluid distribution. Helps transmit impulses in nerve and muscle fibers; combines with chloride and bicarbonate to regulate acid-base balance
Sodium Na+
Which electrolyte:

Maintains cell's electrical neutrality and osmalality; Aides neuromuscular transmission of nerve impulses; Assists skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction and electrical conductivity; Affects acid base; Body cannot conserve
Potassium K+
Which electrolyte:

Promotes enzyme reactions within cell during carbohydrate metabolism; Helps body produce & use ATP for energy; Takes part in protein synthesis; Influences vasodilation; Regulates muscle contractions; Effects parathyroid hormone.
Magnesium Mg+
Which electrolyte:

Helps maintain cell structure and function; plays a role in cell membrane permeability and impulse transmission; Contraction of cardiac, smooth muscle, & skeletal muscle; Participates in blood clotting process
Calcium Ca+
Pushes water out of the capillary into interstitial spaces.
Capillary Filtration Pressure
Pulls water back into the capillary.
Capillary Colloidal Osmotic Pressure
Opposes the movement of water out of the capillary.
Interstitial Hydrostatic Pressure
Pulls water out of the capillary into interstitial spaces.
Tissue Colloidal Osmotic Pressure
osmotic pressure
hydrostatic pressure
blood pressure
movement between plasma and ISF
capillary exchange
movement between ECF and ICF
sodium, infusion of isotonic, glucose, or hypertonic solution
hormone which helps regulate Sodium Balance
ECF loss
excess ICF
excess interstitial fluid
What is evident when interstitial volume > 2-3L?
These are manifestations of ______ ?

-weight gain
-bounding pulse
-distended veins
early edema
These are manefestations of _______ ?

-puffy eyes in AM
-orthopnea(Discomfort in breathing that is relieved by sitting or standing in an erect position.
-increase CVP(central veinous pressure)
-cough/dyspnea(difficulty breathing)
-decreased exercise t
late edema
Causes of ______ ?

-Increased capillary filtration pressure (excess fluid volume)
-Decreased capillary colloidal Osmotic pressure (decrease in plasma proteins)
In the Renin Angiotensin Aldosteron System what does Angiotensin stimulate?
Thirst and vasoconstriction
In the Renin Angiotensin Aldosteron System what does Aldosterone stimulate?
Na+ and H2O retention
Causes of ______ ?

-decrease in ECF
-increase in serum osmolality
-release of ADH(anti-diuretic hormone)
Where are the neuroreceptors for thirst?
What hormone stimulates thirst?
Angiotensin II [RAAS-of the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System]
These are causes of ______ ?

- Inadequate fluid intake(comatose, disoriented)
- vomiting
- diarrhea
- diuretic therapy
- Addison's Disease
- Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Fluid Volume Deficit
These are manefestations of ______ ?

-Mucous membranes
-Metabolic processes
Fluid Volume Deficit
What are the 4 types of Edema?
-Third spacing
What is the most abundant electrolyte in the ECF?
What is the deficiency of sodium in relation to water (body fluids diluted)?
What is the overabundance of sodium in relation to water (body fluids saturated)?
Which type of edema is this?

-usually related to excess vascular volume
-expansion of both the interstitial and intracellular fluid compartments (effects of gravity evident)
Generalized edema
Which type of edema is this?

-Generalized massive edem involving all parts of the body, including the genitalia, chest wall, and arms
Which type of edema is this?

-Accumulation of fluid outside the vasc. compartment that is NOT the interstitial space.
-Fluids not available for metabolic processes
-ascites of fluid in the serous cavities(pericardial sac, peritoneal cavity, pleural cavity)
Third Spacing
Which type of edema is this?

-Edema in the interstitial space caused by blocked lymphatic vessels, which normally drain the tissues
Effects of ______ ?

-Serum osmalality decreases because of decrease in sodium concentration
-Change in mental status
-Late effects = stupor, neuromuscular excitability, convulsions, coma and death.
Causes of :

-Drug therapy
- inappropriate fluid placement
-SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate Diuretic Hormone)
Effects of _______ ?

-Neuromuscular excitability
-flushed skin
-low grade fever
Causes of ______ ?

-Water loss
-Inadequate water intake
-Sodium gain
A condition of the blood and other body fluids in which the bicarbonate concentration is above normal.
-An abnormally high acid (hydrogen ion) concentration in blood plasma.
-When the blood pH value is less than 7.35, the patient is in acidosis.
Abnormally high concentration of potassium in the blood.
Abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood.
Causes of ______ ?

-Decreased renal elimination
-rapid, excessive potassium administration
-movement of ICF to ECF compartment
Manifestations of ______ ?

-neuromuscular weakness and cramps
-paresthesias (a skin sensation, such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling, with no apparent physical cause)
-Anorexia, nausia
-Alt. in NM excitability
-N/V, Diarrhea
Manifestations of ______ ?:

-Altered membrane potentials on CV, NM, & GI function
-Postural hypotension
-Metabolic alkalosis
What is the range of Phosphate in the system?
2.5-4.5 mg/dL
What is the % of K in ICF / % in ECF?
98% / 2%
What is the % of Ca in ICF / % in ECF?
1% / 1%
What is the % of Mg in ICF / % in ECF?
39% / 1%
Where is Na excreted?
where is K excreted?
kidney, skin, GI tract
where is Ca excreted?
kidney, protein binding
where is Mg excreted?
where is P excreted?
Causes of ______ ?

- Heart Failure
- Nephrotic Syndrome
- Hepatic Cirrhosis
- Sepsis
- Some medications
Fluid Volume Excess
Manifestations of ______ ?

- Polyuria
- weight gain
- Bounding pulse
- Distended veins

- Orthopnea
- Dyspnea
- decreased exercise tolerance
Fluid Volume Excess
Causes of ______ ?

- inadequate intake
- excessive loss through kidney, skin, or GI tract
- Redistributed between ICF and ECF compartments
Causes of ______ ?

- abnormal loss of Ca from kidneys
- impaired ability to move Ca bone stores
- increased protein binding
Manifestations of ______ ?

- parasthesias
- cramps
- hyperactive reflexes
- tetany
- hypotension
- bone pain
Causes of ______ ?

- Ca movement in the circulation overwhelms the Ca reg. hormones of the ability of the kidney to remove excess calcium ions
Manifestations of ______ ?

- polyuria
- increased thirst
- flank pain
- muscle weakness
- Ataxia
- personality and behavior change
- anorexia
- constipation
Causes of ______ ?

- intestinal malabsorption
- Vit. D deficiency
- use of Mg & antacids
- long term alcohol abuse (ETOH)
- increase renal excretion
Manifestations of ______ ?

- paresthesias
- muscle weakness
- bone pain
- muscle pain & tenderness
- confusion, LOC
- seizures
- anorexia/dysphagia
- decrease bowel sounds
- acute resp. failure
Causes of ______ ?

- long term use of P containing enemas or laxatives
- hypoparathyroidism
Manifestations of ______ ?

- related to low Ca lvl symptoms
- circumoral and peripheral paresthesias
- muscle spasms
- tetany
- soft tissue calcification
Causes of ______ ?

- insufficient intake
- excessive loss
- movement between ICF & ECF compartments
- diarrhea
- malabsorption syndromes
- chronic alcoholism
Manifestations of ______ ?

- personality change
- nystagmus
- tetany
- tachycardia
- dysrhythmias
- hypertension
Causes of ______ ?

- Renal insufficiency
- antacids
- mineral supplements
- laxatives
Manifestations of ______ ?

- lethargy
- hyporeflexia
- confusion
- coma
- hypotension
- dysrhythmias