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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Aimee Semple McPherson
Succeeded in bringing religion back to California. She succeeded because she blended the old and the new. This showed the rapid change that all of the nation went through from 1919 to 1920.
Boom industries of the Twenties
Manufacturing rose 64 percent; output per workhour, 40 percent. The sale of electricity doubled; the consumption of fuel oil more than doubled. Between 1922 and 1927 the economy grew by 7 percent a year- the largest peacetime rate ever.
Henry Ford
He pushed standardization and mass production to such ruthless extremes that the automobile became affordable. He found Ford Motor Company which succeeded in reducing manufacturing costs by making all the cars alike. First introduced the moving assembly line, or conveyor belt.
Corporate consolidation
The wartime contributions of business managers and the return of prosperity in 1922, had gained them renewed respect and freedom from the government. Encouraged by federal permissiveness, a wave of mergers swept the economy. National chains began to replace mom and pop stores.
The American Plan
This was aimed at ending factories where only union members could work. Employers made workers sign agreements disavowing union membership. Companies such as General Electric and Bethlehem Steel pledged to care for their employees and give them incentives for working hard.
Welfare capitalism
The idea of giving employees welfare and incentives for hard working. This only embraced less than 5 percent of the workforce and often only gave benefits to skilled workers, the ones who were hardest to replace.
Installment buying
Millions of new customers were created by installment buying for cars, radios, and furniture. Consumer debt had jumped 250% to 7$ billion, almost twice the federal budget.
The “new women” of the 20’s, cocktail in hand, cigarette in mouth, footloose and fancy free. This became a symbol of liberation to some, while to others it became a symbol of the decline of civilization.
Margaret Sanger
Her message to save poor women from unwanted pregnancies transferred to a receptive middle-class audience.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
This warranted constitutional equal rights for women. However those familiar with the conditions under which women worked were against it. Death and injury rates for women were nearly double those for men. To them ERA meant losing the protection as well as the benefits women derived from mothers’ pensions and maternity insurance.
Where motion pictures were first shown in little tiny neighborhood theaters. Allowed people to enjoy entertainment at a very low price with very little entertainment.
Took two years for the number of stations to go from 1 to 430 and 1 in 3 families had a radio. Another revolution in entertainment.
With news stories written in a snappy style and mixed with photographs came the first national weekly, Time magazine. Though they controlled less than 10% of all papers, the chains pioneered modern mass news techniques.
Charles Lindbergh
One of the first celebrities. He rode in the first flier to cross the Atlantic alone. He returned with his plane aboard the warship uss Memphis. In NYC, alone he was greeted by nearly four million cheering fans.
Babe Ruth
Hit 54 home runs and made the New York Yankees the first club to attract a million fans in one season. He was also baseballs bad boy, he smoked, drank, cursed and chased every skirt in sight. He also became the highest-paid player in the game and made a fortune endorsing everything from automobiles to clothing.
This was a remarkably complex blend of several older African American musical traditions, combining the soulfulness of the blues brighter syncopated rhythms of ragtime music. Some self-appointed guardians of good taste denounced such music as “intellectual and spiritual debauchery but others disagreed.
The alienation of those who after WWI embraced “nihilism”, believing that their was not meaning in life. They turned their resentment against American life, especially its small towns, big businesses, conformity, technology, and materialism. Some led unconventional lives in New York City’s Greenwich village. Their alienation helped to produce a literary outpouring unmatched in American history.
Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises 1926
He captured the disillusionment of the age through the stories of some expatriates in Paris and then traveling to see the bull races in Spain.
Sinclair Lewis’ Babbitt 1922 & Mainstreet 1920
The first American to win a Nobel prize in literature, he stories sketch a scathing vision of Midwestern small-town life in Main Street with people viewing themselves as the greatest race in the world and saying mechanical things, thus having no originality.
F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby 1926
Protrayed life as a largely personal affair – opulent, self absorbing and ultimately tragic. This book in particular showed the faults of the rich and the background behind prohibition.
T.S. Eliot’s The Wasteland 1922
A long modernist poem dealing with the decline in civilization and the impossibility of recapturing the meaning of life.
Marcus Garvey
A Jamaican nationalist who came to America bring this organization, the Universal Negro Improvement Association, to America in 1916 in hopes of restoring black pride by returning Africans to Africa and Africa to Africans. This was the first mass movement of African Americans in history.
Harlem Renaissance
A renaissance of black literature, painting, and sculpture. Young black writers and artists found their subjects in the street life of cities, the folkways of the rural South, and the primitivism of pre-industrial cultures. Was not a radical protest but it drew on the growing assertiveness of African Americans as well as on their alienation from white intellectuals.
Langston Hughes’ The Weary Blues 1926
Reminded his readers of the ancient heritage of African Americans.
Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God 1937
Was a collection of folktales, songs, and prayers of black Southerners.
Sacco & Vanzetti 1921-1927
These two Italian aliens and admitted anarchists were sentenced to death for a shoe company robbery and murder in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Critics charged that they were innocent and convicted only of being foreign-born radicals. For protesters around the world, the execution was a symbol of American bigotry and prejudice.
Nativism and immigration restriction
Nativism led to the most restrictive immigration laws in American history. White native-born Protestants were worried that if the flood of immigrants continued, America might become “a hybrid race of people worthless and futile as the good-for-nothing mongrels of Central America and Southeastern European. Appreciating the benefits of a shrunken labor pool, the American Federation of Labor supported restriction too.
National Origins Acts 1921, 1924
The first act capped all immigration at 350,000 and parceled out the slots by admitting up to 3% of each nationality living in the United States as of 1910. The second act reduced the quota to 150,000 and the percentage of 2 and pushed the base year back to 1890 before the bulk of Southern and Eastern Europeans arrived. This system restricted the immigration of groups the Americans believed to be inferior but did not limit the immigration of groups they did not believe to be inferior as much.
18th Amendment
Outlawed liquor, but its ban was not total: private citizens could still drink. They simply could not make, sell, transport, or import any “intoxicating beverage” containing 0.5% percent alcohol or more. By some estimates, consumption was reduced by ½ as much.
A throw back to the hooded order of Reconstruction days, it reflected the insecurities of the New Era. Klansmen worried about the changes and conflicts in American society, which they attributed to the rising tide of immigrants, “uppity women”, and African Americans who refused to “recognize their place”. It touted white supremacy, chastity, fidelity, and parental authority, and fought for laissez-faire capitalism and fundamental Protestantism. When boycotts and whispering campaigns failed to cleanse communities of Jews, Mexicans, Japanese, or others who offended their social code, the Klan resorted to floggings, kidnappings, acid mutilations, and murder.
Religious fundamentalism
Conservative Protestants who called for a return to what others believed as the fundamentals of Christian belief, among them the virgin birth and resurrection of Jesus, a literal reading of Genesis, and the divinely inspired authorship of the Bible.
Scopes trial 1925
A biology teacher John T. Scopes was arrested for teaching evolution. The fight became as urban Darrow defending Scopes against a newly antievolution William Jennings Bryan. This was a fight between Christianity and evolution, at the time people did not see how they could not conflict. The presiding judge ruled that Scientists could not be used to defend evolution. He considered their testimony “hearsay” because they had not been present at the Creation. The defense virtually collapsed. Scopes was found guilty in less than 8 minutes and fined $100.
President Warren G. Harding 1920-1923
Tourists again walked the halls of the white house and reporters freely questioned the president for the first time in years. This led the way for Harding’s return to Normalcy.
Return to normalcy
Turned out to be anything but normal. Saw the republicans ruling the white house. Harding’s tolerance and moderation had a calming influence a strife-ridden nation.
Harding administration scandals
Daugherty, his attorney general, sold influence for cash and resigned in 1923. Only a divided jury saved him from jail. Albert Fall, his interior secretary because the first cabinet member to be convicted of a felony for accepting bribes of more than $400,000 for secretly leasing naval oil reserves at Elk Hill, California, and Teapot Dome, Wyoming, to private oil companies.
President Calvin Coolidge 1923-1928
He handled Harding’s sordid legacy with skill and dispatch. He created a special investigatory commission, prosecuted wrongdoers, and restored the confidence of the nation. Decisiveness, when he chose to exercise it was one of Coolidge’s hallmarks. Above all he worshiped wealth, he believed in the government minding its own business. However whether the business-dominated policies served the economy or the nation well in the long term was open to question.
Trickle down economics
Andrew Mellon believed that prosperity trickled down from rich to poor through investment, which raised production, employment, and wages. This persuaded Congress to repeal the excess-profits tax on corporations; convinced legislators to end all gift taxes, to halve estate and income taxes, and to reduce corporation and consumption taxes even further.
A progressive brand of capitalism, supported by Herbert Hoover, it aimed at aiding businesses directly by spreading a new gospel of efficiency and productivity through trade associations, groups of private companies organized industry by industry. Saw the governments role to encourage voluntary cooperation among businesses by providing advice, statistics, and forums where business leaders could exchange ideas, set industry standards, and develop markets.
Hoover and Mellon
Both placed the government in the service of business. As a result, the role of the government in the economy grew.
Dawes Plan
Persuaded the victorious Europeans to scale down reparations. In return the United states promised to help stabilize the German economy. American bankers made larger loans to Germany with which the Germans paid their reparations. The European victors then used those funds to repay their war debts to the United States. This amounted to taking money out of one American vault and depositing it in another. In 1926 the United States also reduced European war debts. Canceling them altogether would have made more sense, but few Americans were that forgiving.
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
A pact signed when the major nations of the world, except the Soviet Union, all signed outlawing war. This proved to be ineffective in practice, as the arms races continued just focused on building small ships, such as submarines, cruisers, and destroyers and the pact had no means of enforcement.
Election of 1928
Herbert Hoover ran for the Republicans, while the democratic party continued to fracture between its rural supporters in the South and West and urban laborers in the Northeast. Al Smith won the domination even though his New York accent made voters across America wince and he was a Catholic. In this election Democrats became the party of the cities and the immigrants.
Bull market*
A market where the bulls or the buys of the stock had routed those who sell the stock. It was the greatest bull market in history as eager purchasers drove prices to new highs.
Stock market speculation*
Buying stocks at a high risk merely expecting the price rise of the stocks.
The Great Crash of 1929
By Thursday, October 24, nervous speculators began to sell. Prices plunged as panic set in. After believing the worst had passed, the following Tuesday, the bubble burst. Stockholders lost 10 billion in a single day. At their peak in 1229 stocks had been worth 87 billion in 1993 they bottomed out at 18 billion.