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39 Cards in this Set

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Domino theory
President Eisenhower’s theory that if one Pro-Western Catholic government fell to the Communists, the other nations of Southeast Asia would follow it.
Tonkin Gulf Incident 1964
American ships patrolling the gulf started to provide protection for secret South Vietnamese raids against the North. On August 2, three North Vietnamese patrol boats exchanged fire with the American destroyer Maddox, neither side hurting the other. Two nights later a second incident occurred, but a follow-up investigation could not be sure whether enemy ships had even been near the scene.
Escalation
The belief that the US needed to either increase its attack or simply withdraw. In theory escalation would increase military pressure to the point at which the enemy was no longer willing to pay.
Rolling Thunder 1965
A systematic bombing campaign aimed at bolster confidence in South Vietnam and cutting the flow of supplies from the North. This achieved none of its goals. American pilots could seldom spot the Ho Chi Minh Trail under its dense jungle canopy. Even when bombs hit, North Vietnamese crews kept the supplies moving by filling bomb craters or improvising pontoon bridges from bamboo stalks.
Teach-ins 1965
Sections held by teacher to explain the issues to concerned students. Scholar’s familiar with Southeast Asia questioned every major assumption the president had used to justify escalation.
Hawks vs. doves 1966
The Hawks argued that American must win the war to save Southeast Asia from communism, to preserve the nations prestige and to protect the lives of American soldiers in the war but doves disagreed.
Anti-war demonstrations 1965
Especially prevalent among college students. These consisted of anything from violent protest to burning of draft cards.
Tet offensive 1968
One of America’s greatest intelligence failures, it came to the surprise of the Americans. Although militarily a failure, Americans at home got a different idea. They saw a credibility gap between the administration’s optimistic reports and the war’s harsh reality.
Senator Eugene McCarthy 1968
Originally he helped LBJ push the Tonkin Gulf Resolution through congress, but he struggled to quantify the success of Vietnam. He soon became skeptical. When Johnson would not listen to him and retreat, he resigned. He became a political champion for antiwar forces.
LBJ withdraws from race 1968
Not wanting to be involved in the partisan divisions that were developing in that political year, he dropped out of the race.
Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1968
He was relaxing on the balcony of his motel in Memphis when James Earl Ray, an escaped convict, fatally shot him with a sniper’s rifle. King’s campaign of nonviolence was overshadowed by the violent reaction to his murder.
Assassination of Sen Robert F. Kennedy 1968
Sirhan Sirhan, a disgruntled Arab nationalist, shot Kennedy who has just run a crucial primary victory in California, running on an antiwar platform.
Democratic National Convention Chicago 1968
Radicals were determined to disrupt the Democratic convention. For a week the police skirmished demonstrators: police clubs, riot gear, tear gas versus the demonstrators’ eggs, rocks, and balloons filled with paint and urine. When the radicals marched past the convention even though the police had told them not to. Their reaction was later labeled as a police riot.
Gov. George Wallace
In running for president he sought the support of the blue-collar workers and the lower middle classes. He enemies were liberals, intellectuals, and long hairs who he believed had run the US for too long.
The establishment*
The idea that a group of upper class held power. This was spoken out against by many lower and middle class people.
The New Nixon 1968
He began to push for votes from Democrats also. He was a self-made man who could understand their needs.
The silent majority 1968
Nixon believed himself to be the leader of a silent majority. He had goals to turn the nations “average Americans’ into a Republican majority.
The Election of 1968
Nixon won with his opposition being split by George Wallace and Hubert Humphrey. This showed that the majority of the American electorate had turned its back on liberal reforms.
President Richard M. Nixon 1968-1974
A publically charming man, he had a troubled personal life with an angry temper. Still he seemed to search out challenges to face and conquer.
Vietnamization 1969
A plan to bring the war to an end but only with “peace with honor” meaning the goal was to leave a pro-American government behind in South Vietnam. Started withdrawing troops in favor of peace talks in Paris.
Cambodian Invasion 1970
Nixon launched a series of bombing attacks against North Vietnamese supply posts in Cambodian. Johnson had refused to expand the war like this but Nixon simply kept these raids secret. Next he attacked Cambodian supply post leading to the riots at Kent state and Jackson State.
Kent State shootings 1970
300 students torn the constitution from history text books and in a formal ceremony buried it. Later they raided a near by town. 750 national guard were called in. The national guard leaders often WWII and Korea vets, particularly hated the students refusing to serve. 4 were killed as the guard tired to stop them from protesting.
Jackson State shootings 1970
At a black college in Mississippi, antiwar protesters seized a woman’s dormitory. The state police opened fire without thinking. Here as at Kent the protesters had been unarmed.
Nixon Doctrine 1969
The United States would shift some of the military burden for containment to other allies: Japan in the Pacific, the shah of Iran in the Middle East, Zaire in Central Africa, and the apartheid government in South Africa.
Détente 1969
The policy of looking for new ways to contain Soviet power not simply by the traditional threat of arms but through negotiations to ease tensions.
China card 1972
The US would stop treating Communist Mao Zedong as an archenemy and instead open diplomatic relations with the Chinese. Fearful of a more powerful China, the Soviets would be more conciliatory toward the United States.
SALT I 1972
The signs of the first strategic Arms treats with the soviets, both sides pledged not to develop a new systems of antiballistic missiles, which would have accelerated the costly arms race. They also agreed to limit the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles each side would deploy.
Caesar Chavez UFW
Mexican agricultural workers continued to face harsh working conditions and meager wages. His efforts led to the formation of the United Farm Workers labor union. Proclaimed non-violence.
Chicano Movement 1968
More aggressive Mexican Americans who saw themselves as people whose culture had been taken away from them. Their heritage had been rejected, their labor exploited, and their opportunity for advancement denied.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Showed the social activism of Indian leaders who were moving into urban areas for the first time. They showed their dissatisfactions by seizing the abandoned federal prison on Alcatraz island in San Francisco Bay.
Model minorities
Asian Americans seemed as such since they possessed skills in high demand, worked hard, were often Christian, and seldom protested. Still agricultural labors and sweatshop workers remained trapped in poverty.
Stonewall Incident 1969
The police raids the Stonewall Inn, a New York gay bar. Raids like this were common enough as police tried to control this urban “vice”, but this time the patrons fought back, first with taunts and jeers, then with paving, stones and parking meters.
Betty Freidan’s The Feminine Mystique 1963
Identified the problem with women that had no name, a dispiriting emptiness in the midst of affluent lives. It said that America’s culture as it currently was did not permit women ot accept their basic need to grow and fulfill their potentialities as human beings. This gave new life to the woman’s rights movement.
National Organization of Women (NOW) 1966
This organization originally led by Betty Freidan argued that sexism was much like racism. They persuaded LBJ to included women along with African Americans, Hispanics, and other minorities as a group covered by federal affirmative action programs.
Consciousness raising*
The process of achieving greater awareness, as of one’s own needs or of a political or a social issue.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) 1972
At first the support for this seemed strong. Both the house and the senate passed it and it soon had the support of 28 of the 38 states needed to ratify it.
Roe v. Wade 1973
Struck down laws restricting a woman’s access to abortion. She was able to have an abortion throughout her first trimester, and after that if delivering the baby was proved to be detrimental to her health.
Phyllis Schlafly
Led the stop ERA crusade. She was a professional working woman, but she believed that women should embrace their traditional role as home-makers subordinate to their husbands. She pointed out that every change that the ERA requires will deprive women of a right, benefit, or exemption that they now enjoy.
Paris Treaty 1973
Finally arrived smoothed by Kissinger’s promise of aid to the North Vietnamese to help in post war reconstruction.