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42 Cards in this Set

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Panama Canal 1906-1914
US buys out French canal effort and takes up construction after getting assurance from newly independent Panama (from Columbia) that the US has control of the canal. Gets malaria under control. Economic advantage: less expensive/faster/more direct shipping for America, source of revenue to control trade through strategic point. Construction: immense engineering, costly.
Global manifest destiny
Ideal cover for economic development. Spread of western values like democracy and capitalism while opening up trade to foreign markets. Progressive, paternalistic view of quasi-empire.
Platt Amendment 1902
Added to Cuba’s Constitution when became independent from Spain. Allows for American intervention (military or otherwise) if Cuba’s independence or state as a nation is threatened. America used it several times to invade and keeps an a lease of land for Guantanamo Bay prison.
Roosevelt Corollary 1904
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine, TR thought necessary because of greedy empirical nature of Euro countries, in addition to making sure Europe stays out of Latin countries’ business, America allows itself to police the Caribbean nations and keep them under its wing.
Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
Negotiated under TR between Russia and Japan, began interest in those two countries as potential rivals in the Pacific b/c of Japan’s power show. Terms included Japan as victor, stay out of Manchuria (Russia’s controlled province in China), control of island port and Korea, as long as it kept trade open to all countries. Got TR the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906.
Gentlemen’s Agreement 1906
San Francisco school district segregated Japanese students to deal with rising immigration, Japanese nationalists in America and Japan took as insult and spoke of war. TR called in the mayor and board members to end the segregation order in exchange for limited immigration from Japan.
Great White Fleet 1907
TR expanded the army x3 and added 16 top of the line battleships to the navy, sent them on a world tour to show off US’ military might. Inspired Japan to enlarge its own navy.
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft’s strategy to keep America at the top: use investment instead of force to keep peace in other countries and favor towards America. Unfortunately the investments were connected to corrupt and unpopular people and corporations in those countries, so the normal populations had bad reactions to the people in charge of the money. ½ US investment in Latin countries in 1913. Nicaragua revolution 1912. Put money into China but made it suspicious of foreigners, overthrew monarchy in 1911.
Moral diplomacy / missionary diplomacy
Kind of manifest destiny idea supported by Wilson. Thought that US should lead other countries to democracy, capitalism, morals/values by example. Paternalistic idea b/c affirmed superiority of Anglo-American background. Practical side: open up foreign markets to American products as an outlet and economic opportunity.
Mexican interventions 1912-1914
1910 revolution-country upset, 1913 general Huerta self-proclaimed dictator, supported by foreign investors and wealthy b/c most likely to protect assets. Wilson supported Carranza, a rebel leader, if he would use elections to get power, denied but America sent arms to rebles anyway.
Pancho Villa / punitive expedition 1916-1917
Wilson finally recognized Carranza regime but Villa turned his back on the US, abducted n killed 18 Americans. Wilson allowed general Pershing to pursue Villa through Mexico, but only fought gov’t troups though. Carranza had reluctantly agreed to let it go on, but 1917 would not stand to have US troops in its borders.
Wilson’s Neutrality Declaration 1914
Wilson thought only way to get world nations to accept a new world order of peace and interconnected concern for each other’s well being was to keep America a neutral beacon of hope/peace for everybody to look up to. Keep out of the war of alliances in Europe, America had no real personal stake except for nationalistic feelings from origins.
Peace without victory 1917
See above
Sinking of Lusitania 1915
A ship carrying passengers as well as military cargo torpedoed by Germans, killing 128 Americans. Wilson thought it was unacceptable to kill innocent passengers who weren’t involved in the war, but sec of state Bryan wanted real neutrality and did not condone putting up civilians as protection against attack.
Sussex Pledge 1916
When Germany opened up possibility of attacking all seagoing vessels, US demanded that either Germany stop attacking non-military vessels, or the US would end up involved in the war. Germany wanted to keep US out of war b/c already up to its neck in Europe, so accepted. Made fate of America’s neutrality in the war dependent on any small belligerent action in the seas.
Preparedness Campaign 1915-1917
Wilson knew that the conservative claims that the US was unprepared to fight a global war had truth to them, so he toured the country on a platform that included both neutrality and a program to beef up the military.
Election of 1916
--the Rep candidate, ran against Wilson on a neutrality platform, but Democrats managed to paint him as a war-mongerer with slogans and propaganda.
Zimmerman Telegram 1917
Telegram from Kaiser to Mexico intercepted by Great Britain offering to give Mexico back its ‘lost territory’ (texas, new Mexico…) if it launched attacks on the US. Wilson thought that was a major insult and publicized it quickly, stirring up anti-Germany sentiment in the US.
Unrestricted submarine warfare 1917
In hopes of taking advantage of the deteriorated state of the French/English army by moving all of its forces to the western front and cutting off Allied supplies via the sea, Germany risked US retaliation and opened up unrestricted submarine warfare.
US Declaration of War 1917
April 6, not unanimous in either house of Congress, full of idealistic purpose, economic forethought, and cultural slant towards the Allies.
Selective Service Act 1917
Basically a draft/conscription that would draw from all classes and all regions of the country. As a result, 24 million men were registered: 2 million volunteers, 3 million were drafted.
War bonds
To help pay for mobilizing an army and keeping it up, took loans from the people of America by selling “liberty” and “victory” bonds and certificates to patriotic Americans.
War Industries Board (WIB) 1917
Had the authority to make companies provide whatever was needed, the board actually persuaded compliance by covering the costs of manufacturing/production and by guaranteeing a profit, corporate profits tripled, anti-trusts suits cooled off during the period. In effect, it coordinated the market and served as a controller.
National War Labor Board 1918
In response to the 4000 strikes of 1917, Wilson created the board to mediate disagreements, increase wages, establish overtime pay, allowed unions rights to organize and bargain collectively in return for promises not to strike.
Black migration
Drawn by labor agents and promises of a future, over 400,000 African Americans migrated to the North, aggravating racial tension over job competition, housing shortages, and old grudges. Southern towns drained of labor force, US Employment service suspended the program helping blacks move north. Mostly into cities and un/semi-skilled jobs.
Committee on Public Information (CPI) / Creel Committee 1917
Americans were not gung-ho about breaking neutrality to enter the war, so Wilson started committee to publicize the right reasons of going to war and keep American support. Lots of patriotic, heroism-like portrayals of the war effort. Posters, pamphlets, plays, tours all helped to get Americans on the war-wagon.
100% Americanism
Taking patriotism to nationalism, people began to think of dissenters/radicals/aliens especially as highly unpatriotic and detrimental to winning the war/morale. People grew suspicious of German people/those with German heritage. And sometimes used violence against them or alienated them from society/suppressed their voice.
Espionage and Sedition Acts 1917 1918
To keep morale on the home front high, people could be arrested for doing anything that went against the war effort or speaking negatively of it. 1500 were arrested.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) / Wobblies
Saw the war as just a capitalist’s way of milking a bad situation, threatened/planned to strike mining industries to weaken the war effort but gov’t raided their Chicago headquarters and broke it up.
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist presidential candidate gave an antiwar speech and was arrested for sedition, found guilty, and sentenced to 10 years in prison. Shows how seriously courts took patriotism.
Schenk vs. US 1919
Endorsed sedition/espionage convictions by upholding arrest of a socialist person who sent pamphlets through the mail because, as Holmes said, they were “a clear and present danger” to morale.
Wilson’s 14 Points
Tried to rise above ‘victorious and losers’ with 14 points outlining his ideal new world order, focus on: open diplomacy, organization of nations, free seas/trade, disarmament, democratic self-rule. Too high-minded, Allies did not like it at all, but did get Germans thinking seriously of a truce: Turkey and A/H surrendered and Germans signed armistice on Nov 11, 1918.
Influenza of 1918-1919
Pandemic started in US but mutated into a virulent form that caused huge loss of life worldwide: 25 million dead worldwide. US relatively better off with only 675,000 deaths (more than wars between 1918 and Vietnam). Thought to be a cause of the final German offensive’s failure.
Paris Peace Conference 1919
Countries met in Versailles to discuss peace terms, Wilson brought selected economists, historians, political scientists etc to help out. Allied powers wanted to crush Germans as the losers and make them pay for the war, Wilson had to give up some of his 14 points. Britain did not agree with free trade/open seas, nobody wanted disarmament unless it was forced on Germany, and instead of rising above blame-‘guilt clause’ blamed it on Germany and forced them to pay 33 billion dollar debt in reparations-huge cost that crippled its economy.
Treaty of Versailles 1919
See above. Not signed by US.
League of Nations/ Article X
Wilson’s dream to have a body of nations that all agreed to support the other, bring their conflicts to the table, and use non-military actions to isolate belligerents.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Mass. Republican Senator who thought that league would limit America’s ability to keep its own foreign policy by making it comply with the other nations.
Versailles Treaty Ratification Debate 1919-1920
Lodge and his supporters in the Senate would not ratify the treaty even when it had been amended to Wilson’s specifications because lodge wanted America to be able to declare war independently.
Irreconcilables
Where is this?
Reservationists
?
Red Scare 1919-1920
High prices, low wages, and a downturn in jobs made people think that socialists were the cause of the economic slump so angry mobs took sometimes violent action against socialists, government (local and federal) deported aliens without records, kicked socialists out of office, invaded private places without warrants and generally ignored civil liberties to try to suppress soviet/socialist conspiracies. Overblown fear of radicals.
Palmer Raids 1919
Raids on homes, organizations, restaurant-types without warrants, arresting suspects and beating resistors. 200 foreigners deported to USSR. Paraded through streets in chains, crammed into jail cells, not concordant with civil liberties.