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56 Cards in this Set

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Triangle Shirtwaist Fire 1911
-mostly young women worked there. There was a fire on the top floor. Many workers couldn’t get out, some doors were locked and others were too crowded. 146 people died, mostly young working class women. Shocked the nation. Helped create new laws regulating fire safety, hours, machinery and homework.
Emerged in the 1890’s. Concern for the poor and working classes, and wanted to stabilize business and avoid social chaos. Wanted to soften the harsh impact of industrialization, urbanization and immigration. Saw govt. as a protector, only the govt. had the ability to make such broad-based reform.
Didn’t ask “is it true?” instead asked “does it work”. Educators, social scientists and lawyers adopted new approaches b/c of it.
Brandeis Brief 1908
Brandeis was a “people’s lawyer”. He tried to bring everyday life into the court case. The Brandeis Brief had 102 pages that described the damaging effects of long hours on working women, and only 15 pages about legal/law stuff. Convinced Supreme court of Oregon’s right to limit the working hours of laborers.
What Roosevelt called those who were bringing the bad side of life to view. They documented dishonesty in the business world. They aroused the people and educated them. They were essential in the reform movement
Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives 1890
Jacob Riis was a crime reporter and photographer. He showed the urban poverty to those in the middle classes. He showed his readers the lives of the poor. In the book there were shocking photo’s of poverty stricken Americans.
A factual representation of human life. Many authors followed Riis’s example and wrote of peoples lives. Through these pieces of work poverty began to look less ominous and more heartrending. People began to think that it was not a result of the poor’s actions, but a result of the big corperations.
Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie 1900
A dark tale of people who live in the city struggling to keep body and soul intact.
Ashcan School
Painted urban life in its grimy realism
Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s Women and Economics 1898
She condemned the conventions of womanhood (femininity, marriage, maternity, domesticity) claiming that they were enslaving and out of date. Wanted a new society were there would be communal arrangements for child rearing and housekeeping and cooperative kitchens so women would be free from economic dependence on men.
Margaret Sanger
Wanted to free women from always being pregnant. Sanger was a nurse and had seen the negative affects on many women. She began to distribute info on contraception.
Child labor reform
To bring about social reform new laws would need to be passed by government so social reform would work. One of the things that they wanted was the abolition of child labor
Carrie Chapman Catt
Was the president of the national American woman suffrage association. Created the “winning plan”
Alice Paul
Was part of the English suffrage movement. Came to America and brought aggressive tactics for women’s suffrage. Broke from the national Am. Woman suffrage association and formed the congressional union which was dedicated to enacting national woman suffrage at any cost through a constitutional amendment.
19th Amendment
1920-granted women the vote. Repression of women working for suffrage had widened the support for it.
Belief that heredity determined everything. Helped support idea that newcomers to America were biologically inferior. Became a big issue.
Most progressives believed in the shaping power of environment, and favored either assimilating immigrants into American society, or restricting their entrance into the country. Many wanted to Americanize the immigrants by teaching them middle class ways, education was key.
Anti-Saloon League
Reformers saw that it would be impossible to ban drinking on a national level. Instead they focused on banning it at state and local levels. This league included doctors, who told the people of the bad things drinking did to ones health, social workers who told of the bad things drinking did to a family, and employers who spoke of the harm it did in the workplace.
White slave trade scare
10 percent of the prostitutes were kidnapped and forced into prostitution
Mann Act 1910
This act prohibited the interstate transport of women for immoral purposes
W.E.B. Dubois’ The Souls of Black Folk 1903
Better future for blacks would only come if they struggled politically to achieve suffrage and equal rights.
Talented tenth
DuBois called upon this cultured black vanguard (in the front of the movement) to start protest against segregation, disfranchisement and discrimination
NAACP 1909
A coalition of blacks and white reformers created the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Worked to extend the principles of tolerance and equal opportunity regardless of color.
Mayor Tom Johnson 1901-1909
Launched a reform campaign as mayor. Made it so that municipal franchises had been limited to a fraction of their previous 99 year terms, and the city ran the utility company (gas and water)
Gas & water socialism
By 1915 almost two thirds of the cities had copied a form of gas and water socialism to control the runaway prices of utility companies
City manager form of government
Elected officials would appoint a city manager to run things. Then there would be experts that were hired to take care of services, engineers would oversee the utilities, accountants would oversee the finances, doctors and nurses would oversee public health and firefighters and police would oversee the safety of the citizens.
Lafollette’s Wisconsin idea
-new laws that regulated railroads, controlled corruption and expanded the civil service. His Wisconsin Idea produced the most comprehensive set of state reforms in Am. History. Created the first state income tax.
Voter introduction of legislation, progressives wanted this because it would cut the power of party organizations and make officeholders directly responsible to the public
Voter enactment or repeal of laws. Progressives wanted this
Voter initiated removal of elected officials. Progressives wanted this
17th Amendment
Permitted direct election of senators instead of having senators chosen by the state legislators.
Worker’s compensation
1902-Maryland adopted first workers compensation act, by 1916 most states required insurance for factory accidents, and over half had employer liability laws. Before these laws courts assumed that workers new about liabilities of their work place and had agreed to take risks so that it was their own fault if they were hurt.
President Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1908
Took over after McKinley was shot. Saw reform as a way to avoid more radical change. Helped progressivism. Thought he could do anything as president that the constitution hadn’t specifically forbidden.
Square Deal
TR thought growth of business, labor and agriculture was natural. Thought big labor would counterbalance big capital and a big govt. could insure fairness.
Anthracite Coal Strike 1902
TR intervened in a strike that idled 140,000 workers and paralyzed the anthracite coal industry. Roosevelt called both sides to the white house to work the strike out. Before this presidents rarely were so decisive in these matters, and a president had never acted in favor of the strikers before. The owners gave the miners a ten percent wage increase and a nine hour day and the owners got an increased coal price and no recognition of the union.
Good vs. bad trusts/ trust busting
TR did not oppose business concentration, he wanted to regulate large corporations to make them fairer and more efficient. He believed there were good and bad trusts
Northern Securities Antitrust Case 1902
TR filed an antitrust suit against the Northern Securities Company, who monopolized railroads in the Northwest. TR said it was a bad trust. The supreme court made it dissolve. TR brought suits against 44 giants.
Elkins Act 1903
Gave the ICC power to end rebates. The railroads supported this act b/c it saved them from the costly practice of granting special reduction to large shippers.
Hepburn Act 1906
Allowed the ICC to set max rates and to regulate sleeping car companies, ferries, bridges and terminals.
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle 1906
Exposed the meat packing industry. Sinclair wanted to recruit people to socialism w/ this book. People were shocked at what they could be eating for breakfast. Helped pass the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food & Drug Act / FDA / 1906
Passed b/c of the Jungle
John Muir & preservationism
John Muir was a naturalist and wilderness philosopher who led the preservationists. Wanted to preserve land for future generations
TR’s conservation program
He sent hundreds of experts to work applying science, education, and technology to environmental problems.
President William Howard Taft 1908-1912
He disliked political maneuvering and preferred conciliation to confrontation. Taft supported the progressives on a tariff issue, but then he supported the other side. Progressives won anyways and they scorned him.
Ballinger-Pinchot affair
Rift between Taft and progressives reached the breaking point. Taft had appointed Ballinger as secretary of the interior instead of chief forester Pinchot. Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination. Angry progressives saw this controversy as a betrayal by Taft
New Nationalism
TR’s new nationalism recognized the value of consolidation in the economy and insisted on protecting the interests of individuals through big govt. It stressed planning and efficiency under a powerful executive. Promised taxes on incomes and inheritances and greater regulation of industry. It embraced social justice (workers compensation)
Election of 1912
Roosevelt won most of the Republican primaries, but Taft secured the nomination w/ his presidential patronage and promises. Roosevelt ran with the Progressive party instead. Democrats elected Woodrow Wilson. Woodrow Wilson won
Progressive / Bull Moose Party
Progressive Republicans split with TR when the republicans elected Taft as their candidate. Formed the progressive party
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom rejected economic consolidation. Thought bigness was a sin b/c it crowded out competition, promoted inefficiency and reduced opportunity. Wanted to limit the size of business and govt.
President Woodrow Wilson 1912-1920
Progressivism peaked while he was president. He was a progressive leader. Shaped policy and legislation. Lowered the high tariff (that was enacted while Taft was pres). Thought tariffs weakened competition
Underwood-Simmons Tariff Reduction 1913
Wilson was against high tariffs b/c they blocked competition. This was the first downward revision in 19 years
16th Amendment
Congress enacted a graduated income tax under the 16th amendment.
Federal Reserve Act 1913
12 regional banks across the country and one central Federal Reserve Board in Washington which would supervise the system. The board could regulate credit and the money supply, It tried to stabilize the existing order by increasing federal control over credit and the money supply
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 1914
Created a bipartisan executive agency to oversee business activity
Clayton Antitrust Act 1914
Barred many of the worst corporate practices: price discrimination, holding companies, and interlocking directors
Brandeis appointment 1916
Wilson appointed Brandeis to the Supreme Court. Brandeis was a progressive that fought for social reforms.