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133 Cards in this Set

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Name the two compartments of the forearm and what each forms from? What is the function of each compartment?
anterior-originates from medial epicondyle and epicondyle ridge of humerus, flexion and pronation
posterior-from lateral epicondyle and epicondyle rige of humerus, extensors and supinators
What nerve innervates the posterior compartment? anterior?
posterior-radial
anterior-median and ulnar
The anterior compartment has a communication with the palm through what?
carpal tunnel
What holds the muscle tendons of the anterior surface of the wrist in place?
palmar carpal ligament and flexor retinaculum
Name the 5 muscles in the superficial group as well as what layers each is in?
layer one-pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris
layer two-flexor digitorum superficialis
What attaches the superficial muscles of the anterior forearm to the medial epicondlye?
common flexor tendon
Do all the superficial muscles of the anterior forearm cross the elbow joint?
yes
Name the 3 muscles in the deep group of the anterior forearm as well as what layer each is in.
layer three-flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus
layer four-pronator quadratus
What is the origin and insertion of the pronator teres? Which border of the cbital fossa does it form?
o=medial epicondyl of humerus
i-lateral radius
forms medial boundary
Where is the flexor carpi radialis located w/ respect to the pronator teres?
medial
What is the origin and insertion of the flexor carpi radialis?
o-medial epicondyle
i-2nd metacarpal
Is the palmaris longus medial or lateral to the flexor carpi radialis?
medial
What does the tendon of the palmaris longus attach to?
flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
Is the tendon of the palmaris longus medial or lateral to the median nerve?
medial
Which of the forearm flexor muscles is the most medial?
flexor carpi ulnaris
Where is the flexor carpi ulnaris located w/ respect to the ulnar artery and nerve?
medial to them
What innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris?
ulnar
What is the function of the flexor carpi ulnaris?
fexes and adducts hand
The digital tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis is enclosed in a common flexor synovial sheath w/ what other muscle?
flexor digitorum profundus
What is the function of the flexor digitorum superficialis?
flexes proximal interphalangeal joints, metacarpophalangeal joints and wrist joint
What is the function of the flexor digitorum profundus?
flexes distal interphalangeal joint, PIP joint, and metacarpophalangela joint and wrist
The lateral part of the flexor digitorum profundus that serves digits 2&3 is innervated by what nerve? medial part that serves 4&5?
2&3-median
4&5-ulnar
If the ulnar nerve is damaged what is the characteristic appearance? median nerve?
ulnar-claw hand
median-benediction
How can the flexor digitorum profundus be tested?
hold the patients hand and flex only the distal phalanges
Is the flexor pollicis longus medial or lateral to the flexor digitorum profundus?
lateral
What other muscle does the flexor pollicis longus share its synovial sheath with?
none
Which muscle is the only muscle that flexes the interphalangeal joint of the thumb? What are the other functions of this muscle
flexor pollicis longus
flex joints between proximal phalanx and 1st metacarpar, carpometacarpal and wrist
What is the deepest muscle in the anterior forearm?
pronator quatratus
What nerve innervates the posterior forearm?
radial
What are the four functional groups of the extensor forearm? Which muscles make up each group?
muscles extend abduct or adduct wrist-extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris
extend medial four digits-extensor digitorum, extensor indicis and extensor digiti minimi
extend or abduct 1st digit-abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and longus
supinate forearm-supinator
Name the superficial extensors of the forearm.
extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris and brachioradialis
Name the deep extensors of the forearm.
supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and longus, extensor indicis
Which extensor tendons of the forearm attach to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus? (4)
extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris
Which extensor tendons of the forearm attach to the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus?
brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus
What is the purpose of the synovial tendon sheaths in the forearm?
reduce friction between tendons and between tendons and bones
The extensor indicis shares a synovial tendon sheath with which other muscle?
extensor digitorum
Which of the extensors of the forearm has its own synovial sheath?
extensor digiti minimi
What is the band of fibrous fascia that holds the extensor tendons in place int he wrist region when the hand is hyperflexed?
extensor retinaculum
Which side of the forearm is the brachioradialis located?
anterolateral side, even though this is in the posterior compartment
Which muscle covers the superficial radial nerve?
brachioradialis
What is the function of the brachioradialis?
flexes the elbow joint, ie drinking a glass of water-does not extend or supinate
The extensor carpi radialis longus crosses underneath which two muscles?
abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis
What is the function of the extensor carpi radialis longus? brevis?
extends and abducts wrist, steadies the wrist when clenching a fist
same as longus
What connects adjacent tendons of the extensor digitorum? (makes it so that 4&5 go together)
intertendinous connection
At the distal metacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joint level, the extensor tendons of the extensor digitorum flatten and form what?
extensor expansion, a triangular, tendinous aponeurosis that wraps around the dorsum and sides of the head of the metacarpal and proximal phalanx
At the distal end of the proximal phalanx, the extensor expansion gives rise to what?
median band that passes to the base of the middle phalanx and two lateral bands that pass to the base of the distal pphalanx
What is the action of the extensor digitorum?
extends proximal, middle and distal phalanges, extends wrist
What is the function of the extensor digiti minimi?
extends the prosmimal phalanx at the metacarpophalangeal joint, assists the extension of the interphalangeal joints and wrist joint
Which of the superficial extensor muscles runs most meidal?
extensor carpi ulnaris
Which of the superficial extensors of the forearm is in its own synovial sheath and its own compartment?
extensor carpi ulnaris
What is the function of the extensor carpi ulnaris?
extends and adducts the wrist and steadies the wrist when clenching a fist (acts together w/ ECRL and ECRB)
Where is inflammation located in a patient with elbow tenonitis?
on the periosteum of the epicondyles where the superficial flexors or extensors of the forearm form a common tendon
What can cause mallet or baseball finger?
sudden forceful extension of a long extensor tendon such as a finger jammed into a base pad
What is the appearance of a mallet finger?
distal interphalangeal joint cannot extend and is pulled in flexion by flexor tendons
What is the appearance of a fractured olecranon at the elbow?
olecranon is pulled upward by the triceps
Where is a synovial cyst of the wrist located? What nerve may be compressed?
dorsal side of hand
median N
Which nerve passes through the supinator?
deep branch of radial nerve
The abductor pollicis longus shares a synovial sheath with which other extensor?
extensor pollicis brevis
What is the function of the abductor pollicis longus?
abducts and extends the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint
What forms the lateral and medial border of the anatomical snuff box?
lateral-extensor pollicis brevis
medial-extensor pollicis longus
What is the function of the extensor pollicis brevis?
extends thumb at the metacarpophalangeal joint, helps extend the 1st metacarpal and wrist, helps abduct wrist
What is the function of the extensor pollicis longus?
extends the distal phalanx at the interphalangeal joint, and proximal phalanx at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb, when thumb is extended it adducts and laterally rotates thumb
Which of the extensor pollicis' is larger and longer?
extensor pollicis longus
Name the contents of the anatomical snuff box.
radial artery, radial syloid process, scaphoid, trapezium and 1st carpometacarpal joint
The extensor indicis shares a synovial sheath with which other extensor?
extensor digitorum
What is the function of the extensor indicis?
extend index finger at proximal interphalangeal joint, helps extend hand
Where does the brachial artery branch? What arteries does it branch into? Which of the branches is larger?
branches at head of radius in lower cubital fossa
ulnar and radial
ulnar artery is larger
Is the ulnar artery in the anterior or posterior compartment?
anterior
Describe the path of the ulnar artery.
begins in cubital fossa, medial to biceps tendon, deep to pronator teres, enters palm on anterior part of wrist, lateral to flexor carpi ulnaris tendon, anterior to ulnar head
What are the branches of the ulnar artery?
anterior and posterior recurrent arteries, common interosseous artery, muscular, palmar carpal, dorsal carpal, superficial branch, deep branch
What is the path of the anterior ulnar recurrent artery? Which muscles does it supply?
arises inferior to elbow joint, runs superiorly between brachialis and pronator teres, supplies these muscles
Which artery does the anterior ulnar recurrent artery anastomose with?
inferior ulnar collateral artery (a branch from the brachial artery)
Does the posterior ulnar recurrent artery arise proximal or distal to the anterior ulnar recurrent artery?
distal
What are the 2 branches of the common interosseous artery?
anterior and posterior
What does the muscular branch of the ulnar artery supply?
medial side of forearm, mainly the flexor-pronators
What forms the palmar carpal arch?
palmar carpal branch of ulnar artery and palmar carpal branch of radial artery
Where is the palmar carpal branch located w/ respect to the FDP?
deep to the FDP
What forms the dorsal carpal arch?
dorsal carpal branch of ulnar artery and dorsal carpal branch of radial artery
Where does the dorsal carpal branch arise?
proximal to pisiform bone
What does the superficial branch of he ulnar artery form? What does it anastomoses with?
superficial palmar arch
radial artery
Is the superficial palmar arch formed mainly by the ulnar or radial? deep palmar arch?
-superficial is more ulnar
deep palmar is more radial
What forms the deep palmar arch?
deep branch of ulnar artery and radial artery
What artery is used as the demarcation for the separation of the flexors and extensors of the forearm?
radial
What artery is used commonly to measure the pulse of the heart?
radial artery
Name the branches of the radial artery.
radial recurrent, superficial palmar branch, palmar carpal branch, dorsal carpal branch, deep palmar arch
Which muscles does the radial recurrent artery supply?
brachioradialis and brachialis
Which artery does the radial recurrent anastomoses with?
radial collateral artery (a branch from deep artery of the arm)
From where does the superficial palmar branch arise?
distal end of radial artery
What is the deep palmar arch a continuation of?
radial artery
With what does the palmar carpal branch communicate with?
recurrent branch of the deep palmar arch
What artery is visible and can be palpated in 3% of the population? Why is this important?
superficial ulnar artery, don't mistake as a vein
From where does the cephalic vein arise?
anatomical snuff box
From what part of the arm does the cephalic vein collect blood?
lateral side of dorsal venous network
Where does the median antebrachial vein begin and end?
begins in superficial venous palmar arch, ends in basilica vein
What does the antebrachial vein drain?
subcutaneous tissue in anterior part of forearm
What do the radial and ulnar veins drain?
forearm, carry little blood from hand
From which cord of the brachial plexus does the median nerve originate?
lateral
What artery does the median nerve travel with?
brachial
The median nerve is deep to which muscle? superficial?
deep to flexor digitorum superficialis, superficial to flexor digitorum profundus
The median nerve can be reached in between which 2 tendons?
palmaris longus and flexor carpi radialis
Where does the median nerve branch?
no branches in arm, does branche in forearm and hand
What are the 5 branches of the median nerve?
articular, muscular, anterior interosseous, recurrent branch of median nerve, palmar cutaneous branch of median nerve
Where does the articular branch go to?
elbow joint
What do the muscular branches innervate?
all flexor forearm muscles exept flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial half of the flexor digitorum profundus
What does the anterior interosseous nerve innervate?
lateral half of flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus and wrist joint
Which muscles does the recurrent branch of median nerve innervate?
distal to flexor retinaculum
innervates thenar muscles
Which branch of the median nerve branches distal to the flexor retinaculum? proximal?
distal-recurrent branch of median nerve
proximal-palmar cutaneous branch of median nerve
What does the palmar cutaneous branch of median nerve supply?
skin of lateral palm
What is pronator syndrome?
A median nerve injury due to the heads of the pronator teres muscle, nerve can be compressed between the two heads
Where is pain felt with pronator syndrom?
proximal anterior forearm
The ulnar nerve originates from which cord of the brachial plexus?
medial cord
Which muscles does the ulnar nerve supply?
flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus
What is the groove between the pisiform and the hook of the hamate called? What passes through here
canal of Guyon
ulnar nerve
What are the branches of the ulnar nerve?
articular, muscular, palmar cutaneous, dorsal cutaneous, deep branch
Which branch of the ulnar nerve goes to the elbow joint?
articular branches
What do the muscular branches of the ulnar nerve supply?
flexor carpi ulnaris and medial half (digit 4&5) of the FDP
Where does the palmar cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve arise?
middle of the forearm
What does the palmar cutaneous branch supply? dorsal cutaneous?
palmer-skin of medial part of palm
dorsal-posterior surface of medial part of hand and digits
Which branch of the ulnar nerve arises at the wrist?
deep branch
Which muscles does the dep branch of the ulnar nerve supply?
hypothenar muscles (uscles of little finger), interosseous muscles of hand and 3rd & 4th lumbrical muscles
What is a common site of injury for the ulnar nerve?
posterior epicondyle
If there is numbness and tingling at the medial part of the palm and the medial one and a half fingers (5th digit and medial side of 4th digit) what nerve may be injured?
ulnar nerve
A clawhand is associated w/ which type of nerve injury? Which digits are affected?
ulnar nerve
4th & 5th
Which muscles may atrophy w/ ulnar nerve injury? What is the result?
interosseous muscles
impaired abduction/adduction of fingers
What syndrome is associated w/ the ulnar nerve being compressed by the flexor carpi ulnaris at its proximal attachment site where the two heads (humeral and ulnar) form a tunnel?
cubital tunnel syndrome
What are the branches of the radial nerve?
superficial, deep, posterior cutaneous nerve
What does the superficial branch supply?
skin of the palmar and radial side of the hand as well as a number of joints in the hand
The deep branch of the radial nerve is a ______ and ______ nerve.
muscular and articular
Which branch of the radial nerve is a direct continuation of the radial nerve?
deep branch
Which muscle does the deep branch pierce?
supinator
What does the deep branch become?
posterior interosseous nerve
What is a common characteristic of radial nerve injury?
wrist drop
Which branch of the radial nerve is injured if there is an inability to extend the thumb and the metacarpophalangeal joints? coin shaped area anesthesia on dorsal hand?
deep branch
superficial branch