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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the state of the ankle in the standing erect foot?
How many tarsal bones are there? Name them.
talus, calcaneus, navicular cuboid, 3 cuneiforms
Describe the head of the first metatarsal.
it has two small sesamoid bones on the plantar surface
Describe the phalanges of the foot.
rudimentary compared to the hand, in the 1st and 5th digit the second and third phalanges are fused
What is the only muscles on the dorsum of the foot?
extensor digitorum brev is
What covers the muscles on the plantar surface?
skin, plantar fascia and a very strong, thick plantar aponeurosis
What is the action of the first layer of muscles on the plantar side?
help maintain arch
What is the action of the second layer of muscles on the plantar side? Which muscle do they assist?
flexion of distal phalanges
assist flexor longus
What is the action of the third layer of muscles on the plantar side? What is the action of its largest muscle?
maintain position of sesamoid bones
-flexion of great toe
Which tendons are present in the forth layer of the plantar side?
peroneus longus and tibialis
What is the action of the fourth layer of muscles on the plantar side?
unimportant, may act as stirrup and assist in longitudinal arches of foot
Name the nerves of the foot. Which nerve divides?
medial and lateral plantar N, deep and superficial fibular, saphenous, sural
lateral plantar divides
What does the medial plantar nerve supply?
four intrinsic muscles of the foot and skin of the medial 3 1/2 toes
What are the branches of the lateral plantar nerve? What does each supply?
superficial-skin of lateral 1 1/2 toes and skin of lateral plantar surface
deep-intrinsic muscles of deep foot compartments
Which nerve supplies the extensor digitorum brevis? What type of muscle is this?
deep fibular
intrinsic muscle
What does the cutaneous branch of the deep fibular nerve supply?
skin between the great and second toe
Which side of the foot does the saphenous nerve supply?
What does the superficial fibular nerve supply?
skin on dorsum of foot
Which side of the foot does the sural nerve supply?
Which of the tibial arteries forms branches that accompany the plantar nerves?
posterior tibial
What artery does the anterior tibial artery continue as?
dorsal artery of the foot (dorsalis pedis)
Name the branches of the posterior tibial artery.
medial and lateral plantar
What does the medial plantar artery supply?
great toe and medial skin
Which vessels form the plantar arch? Between which muscle layers does the 3rd and 4th muscle layers lie?
lateral plantar artery and dorsalis pedis artery
between 3rd and 4th layer
What is the dorsal artery of the foot a continuation of? What does it become?
anterior tibial
dorsal metatarsal artery to big toe and arcuate artery of the foot
Which joints are involved in inversion/eversion?
subtalar, talocalcaneonavicular, transverse tarsal
What is the articulation of the subtalar joint?
talus and calcaneous
Name the chief invertors of the foot.
tibialis anterior and posterior
Name the chief evertors of the foot.
fibularis longus, brevis and tertius
What is the articulation of joints involved w/ dorsiflexion/plantarflexion?
between metatarsals and phalanges, adjoining phalanges
Name the chief dorsiflexors of the foot.
extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, tibialis anterior
Name the chief plantarflexors of the foot.
flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior
What is the action of intrinsic foot muscles?
dorsiflex/extend phalanges or flex phalanges
Name the anatomical features essential to arch support.
shape of bones, ties connecting the bones (ligaments and short muscles), slings formed by tendons of long muscles
Name the 2 longitudinal arches of the foot. Which is taller?
medial and lateral
Which bones are involved in themedial longitudinal arch?
calcaneus, talus, navicular 3 cuneiforms, 3 medial metatarsals, 3 medial digits
Name the ligaments and short muscles that support the medial longitudinal arch.
spring (plantar calcaneonavicular) ligament
plantar aponeurosis
short muscles of medial foot
Name the muscular slings of the medial longitudinal arch.
tibialis posterior and anterior
Name the bones that make up the lateral longitudinal arch.
calcaneus, cuboid, 2 lateral metatarsals, 2 lateral digits
Which ligaments and short muscles make up the lateral longitudinal arch?
plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (short plantar)
long plantar ligament
plantar aponeurosis
short muscle sof the lateral foot
Which muscular suspension helps make up the lateral longitudinal arch?
peroneus longus
Name the bones of the transverse arch.
cuneiform bones and cuboid
Name the tendons of the transverse arch.
fibularis longus and tibialis fopsterior
Which ligament is most responsible for maintenance of the medial longitudinal arch?
plantar calcaneonavicular or spring ligament
What happens when the pring ligament fails?
head of talus falls and pushes aside the calcaneus and navicular bones wher it comes to rest on soft tissue
Where can the dorsal artery of the foot be palpated?
tendons of extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus
Continuous overloading of the plantar aponeurosis leading to inflammation, pain and swelling is referred to as what?
plantar fasciitus