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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
tarsal bones of the foot
talus calcaneus navicular ccuboid and cuneforms
# of sesamoid bones in the foot
2
name the arches of the foot
medial and lateral longitudinal arches and the transverse arch
ligaments that support the arches of the foot
plantar calcaneonavicular
short and long plantar ligaments
plantar aponeurosis
clinical note: correction of fallen arch
custom orthotics can correct the faulty foot biomechanics
dynamic supports of the arch of the foot
tibialis posterior tibialis anterior flexus hallucis longus fibularis longus and intrinsic plantar muscles
passive/static support of the arch of the foot
plantar aponeurosis long plantar ligament short plantar ligament and plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
Hallux vagus
lateral deviation of the phalanges of the great toe, subluxation of the sesamoid bones and subsequently altered biomechanics of the flexor hallucis longus tendon,
bunion
inflammation of soft tissues of first MTP joint followed by bone deposition
contributing factors to bunion and hallux vagus
poor fitting high heeled narrow toes shoes
plantar aponeurosis
a thickening of deep facia in the sole of the foot. It is firmly anchored to the calcaneus and passes forward as thick bands which enter the toes connecting with bone, ligaments and the dermis of the skin
superficial transverse metatarsal ligaments
are transverse fibers bands that connect the longitudinal bands of the aponeurosis
the plantar aponeurosis supports...
the longitudinal arch of the foot and protects deeper structures
clinical note: Plantar fasciiatis
inflammation of the plantar fascia at its attachment site on the calcaneus; can lead to a heel spur if contributing factors are not modified; presents as pain in heel or arch
fibrous digital sheaths
flexor tendons enter these and they contain inner synovial sheaths to decrease friction
extensor hoods
provide attachment for intrinsic muscles (interossei and lumbricals) of the foot with an arrangement that is similar to the hand
Layer one how many muscles?
three:two abductors and one flexor
abductors of layer one
abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi
flexor digitorum brevus
flexor of layer one; the tendon splits and inserts to the middle phalynx
layer two muscles
quadratus plantae, 4 lumbricals and long flexor tendons
layer three muscles
flexor hallucis brevis
adductor hallucis and flexor digit minimi
flexor hallucis brevis
has two heads each with a sesamoid bone
layer 4 muscles
3 plantar interossei and 4 dorsal interossei
plantar interossei
adduction
dorsal interossei
abduction the second digit is the reference point for abduction
arteries in the sole of the foot
posterior tibial artery divides into medial and lateral plantar arteries
lateral artery
makes up the plantar arch from which branch the plantar metatarsal arteries
plantar metatarsal arteries
give rise to the common digital and digital arteries to the phalanges
arteries ont eh dorsum of the foot
dorsalis pedis-contiuation of the anterior tibial artery
superficial veins
great saphenous and lesser saphenous; originate from the dorsal venous arch of the foot
great saphenous
travels proximally on the medial aspect of the leg and thigh
cutaneous innervation of dorsum of foot (medial to lateral)
saphenous, superficial fibular, sural in between the great toe and 2nd toe is innervation from dep fibular
cutaneous innervatio nof the planter aspect of foot (medial to lateral and tehn the heel)
saphenous, medial plantar, lateral plantar, sural and teh heel is tibial nerve
superficial plantar surface
note cutaneous calcaneal branch of the tibial nerve
tibial nerve
divides into the medial and lateral plantar nerves which branch to innervate the muscles of the foot and associated regions of the skin
clinical note:morton's neuroma
certain activities such as running can cause the matatarsal bones to lean into each other and pinch the nerve between them. the deep transverse metatarsal ligaments holds the metatarsals together. the common plantar nerve becomes swollen and this makes the condition worse. the nerve becomes scarred. the nerve most frequently involved is the nerve between the 2nd, and 3rd or 3rd and 4th metatarsal heads
medial planter nerve innervates
4 muscles in the sole of the foot
flexor digitorum brevis, flexor hallucis brevis, abductor hallucis and 1st lumbrical
lateral plantar nerve innervates
all of the rest of the intrinsic muscles of teh foot
lateral plantar nerve similar to
ulnar nerve in the hand
medial plantar nerve similar to
median nerve in hand
clinical note: tibial nerve compression in tarsal tunnel
may be compressed at the ankle as it courses through tarsal tunnel adjacent to medial malleolus. patients may have pain and paresthesia in the sole of the foot and weakness of the intrinsic muscles of the foot
fibularis tertius
muscle in teh anterior compartment of the leg
proximal attachment of fibularis tertius
distal fibula and attaches to the dorsal 5th metatarsal
innervation of fibularis tertius
deep fibular nerve
function of fibularis tertius
dorsi flexion and eversion
extensor digitorum brevis insertion
lateral aspect of tendons of extensor digitorum longus
extensor hallucis brevis insertion
base of the proximal phalynx
extensor digitorum brevis origin
calcaneus
extensor digitorum brevis innervation
deep fibular nerve
extensor hallucis brevis origin and innervation
calcaneus and the deep fibular nerve
dorsalis pedis artery
farthest palpable vessel from the heart; important for assessing peripheral circulation
palpate dorsalis pedis artery:
between extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons