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37 Cards in this Set

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Eukaryotic Cells
membrane bound organelles & nucleus

true nucleus containing genetic material. Contain membrane bound organelles.
Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
What kingdom are the eukaryotic cells in?
Cytoskeleton
Network of fibers that form a dynamic framework for support and movement.
cytoskeleton
microfilaments/actin filaments
intermediate filaments
microtubules
organelles
nucleus
nucleolus
E.R.
Smooth E.R.
Ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes
Mitochondria
What's in the eukaryotic cells.
Microtubules
Form cilia, flagella, and centrioles.
Organelles
Specialized structures that perform specific functions. Sequester reactions.

Many contain folded membranes (increase surface area)
Nucleus
Spherical or oval, contains DNA
Nuclear Envelope/Membrane
Double membrane perforated by pores. Maintains nuclear shape and regulates transport in and out of the nucleus.
Nucleolus
One or more spherical bodies within the nuclear envelope.

Functions in the synthesis of RNA.
Rough E.R.
Studded with ribosomes. Site for synthesis of secretory proteins and membrane molecules.
Smooth E.R.
Lack ribosomes

synthesizes:
Phospholipids
Fats
Steroids
Ribosomes
Formed of 2 subunits: 60s and 40s

Free __________: suspended in the cytoplasm
Bound _________: attached to ER

Sites of protein synthesis.
Golgi Apparatus
Flattened sacs, stacked on one another.
Receive and modify products from the ER.
Packages products in vehicles: Transport, Secretory, and Storage.
Lysosomes
stomach of cell

Membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes.
Function in phagocytosis, Recycling cells own organic material
If the leak out, the cell will die
Programmed cell destruction
Lysosomal storage disease
Lysosomes lack one of the hydrolytic enzymes.
eg. Tay-sachs disease: lack enzyme to digest lipid. Excess lipid accumulates and damages brain cells.
Mitochondria
"power house of the cell"
Mitochondria
Inner membrane folds into cristae
Sites of cellular respiration (ATP production)
semipermeable/selectively permeable
What is the name for the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells?
Passive
Simple diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis
Osmoregulation
Channel proteins
gated channels
Active transport
What are the modes of transport for eukaryotic cells?
Transport
The movement of materials across the plasma membrane.
Passive transport
Does not require energy from the cell.
Simple diffusion
Molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
Facilitated diffusion
A carrier protein combines with a specific substance and moves it across the membrane.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane. (water moves from a higher to a lower concentration of water)

Water moves toward a region of higher solute (dissolved substance) concentration.
Osmoregulation
The control of water balance
Isotonic
Hypertonic
Hypotonic
Plasmoptysis
plasmolysis
What are the types of solutions in eukaryotic cells?
Isotonic
Concentration of dissolved substances are the same inside and outside the cell. No net flow of water.

same inside as outside
Hypertonic
above/exceeding
high solute concentration
more dissolved solution in environment than in cell.
Hypotonic
lower/below
Low solute concentration
outside in environment
Plasmoptysis
Osmotic lysis

Bursting of a cell in a hypotonic solution becuase water moves into the cell.
Plasmolysis
Shrinkage of the cytoplasm due to loss of water in a hypertonic solution

happens because water leaves cell.
Channel proteins
Proteins which form channels through the membrane allowing passsage of certain molecules

gated channels: some can act as "gates" that open and close.
gated channels:
some can act as "gates" that open and close.
Active Transport
Can move substances against their concentration gradient.

Requires that the cell expend energy (ATP)

eg. Sodium-Potassium pump
Endocytosis
Exocytosis
What do eukaryotic cells use for transportation of large particles?
Endocytosis
Bringing it into the cell.
Phagocytosis
Pinocytosis
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis
Exocytosis
Vacuole fuses with plasma membrane & expels contents from cell.

brings particles out of cell.