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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
definition of Matter
anything that has mass or occupies space
5 areas of Chemistry
Biochemistry
Organic
Inorganic
Analytical
Physical
definition of Biochemistry
process that takes place in organisms
def of Organic
living things that contain carbon
def of Inorganic
nonliving things that don’t contain carbon
def of Analytical
analyzing composition of matter
def of Physical
rate of which something happens/process
def of Pure chemistry
pursuit of chemical knowledge
def of Applied chemistry
research directed for practical goal
def of Extensive properties
depends on amount of matter that is present (quantity)
examples of Extensive properties
Mass, volume, energy
def of Intensive properties
does not depend on the amount of matter present (quality);
examples of Intensive properties
Density, melting point, boiling point
def of physical properties
substance where the quality changes but doesn’t change with another substance
def of Chemical properties
shows when a substance changes into or interacts with another substance
def of Substance
type of matter that has a defined fixed composition
How to tell when chemical change occurs
-gas being formed
-changing appearance
-changes into solid/precipitate
def of Mixture
-combination of different substances
-can physically separate it
-ex. Air, Foods
def of Compound
can’t physically separate it
def of Heterogeneous mixture:
and examples
-one or more visible boundaries between the compounds
-ex: bowl of apples and pears, or sand in water
def of Homogeneous mixture
and examples
-has no visible boundaries, component are mixed individual atoms, ions and molecules
-ex. Salt water and air (can’t physically separate it)
def of Pure substances
-can’t be decomposed by chemical means like elements- gold aluminum
-can be like compounds
5 Basic separation techniques
Fltration
Crystalization
Distillation
Extraction
Chromatology
def of Filtration
-separates components of a mixture based upon differences in particle size.
def of Crystallization
-separation based on differences in solubility (able to mix) of components in a mixture
def of Distillation
-separation based up on differences in volatility (evaporate)
def of Extraction
-separation is based upon differences in solubility in different solvents (major material)
def of Chromatography
-separation based upon differences in solubility in a solvent versus a stationary phase
def of Element
-simplest form of matter (oxygen or hydrogen);
def of Compounds
-substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined; has a fixed proportion
def of Physical methods
and examples
-can’t break compounds
-ex. boil water doesn’t make oxygen and hydrogen
things that make a chemical change
-Burn, rot, rust, decompose, ferment, explode, or corrode means a chemical change
-substance present is the...
-substance produced is the...
-reactant
-product
Chemical change involves...
transfer of energy
def or Law of conservation of mass
-physical/chemical change mass conserves
-not created nor destroyed
the def of Atom
-the smallest unit of an element, building blocks of matter
the def of Element
-pure substance made up of one kind of atom
the def of Compound
-substance that is made from the two or more elements that are chemically bounded
Phlogiston Theory is...
-Combustible materials contained phlogiston- released when burning
-air attracted phlogiston, burning stopped when air became “saturated”
-had negative mass
Antoine Lavoisier found out...
-proved oxygen in air necessary for burning
def of Measurement
-quantitative observation consisting of number and a unit
def of Uncertainty measurement
-a digit that must be estimated is the uncertain digit
def of Precision
-refers to degree of agreement over several measurements made in same manner
def of Accuracy
-agreement of a particular value with the true value
def of Random error
-the numbers have no pattern
def of Systematic error
numbers are in a pattern
When there’s a decimal and sig figs
-start counting sig figs after zeros after the decimal
sig figs and exact numbers
Exact numbers have infinite number of sig figs
When there isn’t a decimal present and sig figs
-don’t count ending zeros
sig figs in Multiplying or Dividing
-number of sig figs in answer = least number of sig figs in calculations
sig figs in Adding or Subtracting
-number of decimal places in result= places in least precise measurement
International System of Units of
Length
Mass
Temp
Time
Amt. Sub
Electric current
-meter
-kilogram
-kelvin
-second
-mole
-ampere
--Metric prefixes-
kilo
deci
centi
milli
-1000 times larger (k)
-10 times smaller (d)
-100 times smaller (c)
-1000 times smaller (m)
Kelvin is
conversion
the absolute temperature scale begins at absolute Zero; only has pos. values
-K= celcius + 273.15