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26 Cards in this Set

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104.1 State the sequence to examine an injured person
Save life, Prevent Further Injury, and Limit Infection.
By:
a. Check for breathing
b. Check for bleeding
c. Check for shock
d. Examination Warnings (CBR attack, broken limbs)
104.2 State the reason for not moving an injured person unless absolutely necessary.
Moving victim could gravely endanger life, especially if there are fractures, skull or spine injuries.
104.3 Describe the signs, symptoms, and treatment of shock.
Symptoms
Pulse is weak and rapid. Breathing is shallow, rapid, and irregular. The temperature near the surface of the body is lower. Very pale, skin may have a bluish or reddish color. A person in or going into shock has a bluish color to these membranes instead of a healthy pink. The pupils are usually dilated (enlarged). A conscious person in shock may complain of thirst and have a feeling of weakness, faintness, or dizziness. The victim may feel nauseous, restless, frightened, and/or anxious. As shock deepens, these signs gradually disappear and the victim becomes less and less responsive to what is going on. Even pain may not arouse the shock victim. Finally, the victim may become unconscious.

Treatment
You should begin treatment for shock as soon as possible. Keep the victim lying down and warm. THE BASIC POSITION FOR TREATING SHOCK IS ONE IN WHICH THE HEAD IS LOWER THAN THE FEET.
104.4 Explain why you should not give an unconscious person anything by mouth.
Giving an unconscious person any food or drink by mouth can cause vomiting,
vomited material may enter the lungs causing victim to choke to death.
104.5 Describe the three types of bleeding.
a. Capillary bleeding bleeding is slow, the blood “oozes” from the wound (cut)
b. Venous bleeding – the blood is dark red or maroon, and flows in a steady stream.
c. Arterial bleeding – the blood is bright red and “spurts” from the wound. Arterial bleeding is life threatening and difficult to control.
104.6 Explain the four methods for controlling bleeding
Direct pressure-First method to use when controlling bleeding. In most cases bleeding can be stopped by direct pressure on the wound
Use a sterile dressing when available and tie a knot directly over the wound. Do not tie the knot too tight and cut off circulation
Elevation Raising an injured limb above the level of the heart helps to control the bleeding. Elevation should be used together with direct pressure CAUTION – do not elevate a limb if you suspect a fracture
Indirect pressure: In instances of severe bleeding where direct pressure and elevation are not controlling the bleeding, indirect pressure may be used
Bleeding from a cut artery or vein can often be controlled by applying pressure to the appropriate pressure point The object of the pressure is to compress the artery against the bone, thus shutting off the flow of blood from the heart to the wound
Tourniquet Should only be used as a LAST RESORT for severe, life threatening bleeding that cannot be controlled by any other method When using this method, be thoroughly familiar with the dangers and limitations of its use.
104.7 Discuss the major pressure points of the body.
There are 11 principle pressure points on each side of the body
i. Facial artery 1. Apply pressure on this point when bleeding is on the face below the level of the eyes
ii. Subclavian artery 1. Used for bleeding in the shoulder or in the upper part of the arm 2.Apply pressure with the fingers behind the clavicle
iii.Brachial artery 1. Used to control bleeding between the middle of the upper arm and the elbow
iv. Radial and Ulnar arteries 1. Used to control bleeding from the hand 2. If possible, hold the arm up in the air
v. Iliac artery 1. Used to control bleeding from the thigh 2.Pressure with your fingers should be sufficient to stop the bleeding
vi. Anterior and Posterior tibial arteries 1. Used to control bleeding from the foot 2. As with the hand, elevation is helpful in controlling bleeding
vii. Superficial temporal 1. Used to control bleeding from the region of the temple or scalp
viii. Femoral artery 1. Controls bleeding in the upper thigh 2. A great deal of pressure must be exerted to compress the artery against the bone
ix. Popliteal artery 1. Controls bleeding between the knee and the foot
104.8 Describe the first aid treatment for a sucking chest wound.
1. wound sealed with an airtight dressing to prevent air from entering the chest cavity through the wound.
2.If the victim’s condition suddenly deteriorates when you apply the seal, IMMEDIATELY remove dressing
3. Victim should be placed on the wounded side.
4. Treat for shock
104.9 Describe the first aid treatment for a person with a suspected spinal injury.
-Do not move the victim unless it is absolutely essential
-Do not bend or twist the victim’s body, do not move the head forward, backward, or sideways and do not under any circumstances allow the victim to sit up.
-Minimize shock
-Prevent further injury to the spinal cord
-Keep the victim comfortably warm
104.10 Describe the three degrees of burns.
1st Degree: Characterized by redness, mild swelling, and pain. Usually the result of spending too much time in the sun, short contact with chemicals, or minor scalding with hot water or steam
2nd Degree: Are much deeper than first-degree burns Appearance: very red with blisters Usually results from deep sunburns or flash burns from gasoline fires. Most painful type of burns because the nerve endings are still intact even though the skin is severely damaged.
3rd Degree: The most serious burn because the burn is so deep, it requires a long time to heal and scars will form over the burn area. Skin may look white or charred black. Extends through all layers of the skin and into the flesh below the skin
104.11 Describe the first aid treatment for the following burns:
a. White phosphorous burn on back
b. Chemical burn on arm
c. Flash burn to eyes
d. Chemical burn to eyes
a. White phosphorous burn on back: white phosphorus particles ignite upon contact with air, flushe with water while the first aid provider removes phosphorous, covered embeded particles a saline soaked dressing.
b. Chemical burn on arm: Flush with cool running water for 5 to 10 minutes to wash away any chemicals, Remove clothing and jewelry from the chemicals spilled area, Flush again with water and gently pat it dry with a sterile gauze. Do not rub the area.
c. Flash burn to eyes are a result of thermal, infrared radiation emitted by a nuclear explosion Symptoms:
Blindness may persist for 20 to 30 minutes while Eyes are irritated, like having sand in the eyes Treatment: Apply cold compresses to the affected area. Transport victim to the nearest medical treatment facility.
d. Chemical burn to eyes: Flush with water for at least 20 minutes. Pour flow from inside the corner of the eye toward the outside.
104.12 Describe the symptoms and treatment of:
a. Heat cramps
b. Heat exhaustion
c. Heat stroke
a. Heat cramps-Excessive sweating which can result in painful cramps in the muscles of the abdomen, legs, and arms. Drink plenty of water.
b. Heat exhaustion-common heat related condition resulting from prolonged exposure to hot conditions resulting in a disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart and lungs. Pupils may be enlarged, Skin cold, moist, clammy. Treat for shock and put in cool air.
c. Heat stroke-heat stroke is the extremely high body temperature, 105 F or higher, that accompanies it 20% mortality rate, Hot dry Skin with a rapid pulse constricted pupils
104.13 Explain how heat casualties in the field may be prevented
Prevention centers on water and salt replacement, Do not consume alcoholic beverages and stay in shaded or cooled area.
104.14 Describe frostbite and immersion foot.
-Frostbite occurs when ice crystals form in the skin or deeper tissues after sustained exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees F or lower
Depending upon the temperature, altitude, and wind speed, the exposure time necessary to produce frostbite varies from a few minutes to several hours. The areas most commonly affected are the face and extremities
-Immersion foot is a cold injury resulting from prolonged exposure to wet, cold temperatures just above freezing associated with limited motion of the extremities and water-soaked clothing
104.15 Describe the signs and symptoms of hypothermia.
Hypothermia is cooling of the entire body, Several stages of progressive shivering w/ sluggishness, drowsiness and confusion possible unconscious, shock and freeze
104.16 Explain how cold injuries can be prevented.
-becoming accustomed to a cold climate
-Wear layered clothes
-Keep Dry
104.17 Describe the symptoms and first aid treatment for a joint dislocation.
A bone forcibly displaced from its joint is dislocated treat by supporting the injured part by means of a sling.
104.18 Explain when and why a cold pack or heat pad would be used on a sprain.
-Treat all sprains as fractures until ruled out by x-rays
-Apply cold packs for the first 24 to 48 hours to reduce swelling and to control internal hemorrhage
-Apply a snug, smooth, figure eight bandage to control swelling and to provide immobilization
-After the swelling stops moist heat can be applied for short periods (15 to 30 minutes) to promote healing and reduce swelling
104.19 Describe the procedure for treating insect bites.
-Remove stingers without squeezing additional
venom
-Place an ice cube or analgesic-corticosteroid
cream or lotion over the wound site to relieve
pain.
-inject antivenom if required.
104.20 Describe the first aid treatment for snake bites.
-reducing the circulation of blood through the bite area to delay absorption of the venom, prevent aggravation of the local wound, and maintain the victim’s vital signs.
-Wrap a constricting band 2 to 3 inches above the fang marks, or above the nearest joint, but away from the swelling
-A second constricting band should be placed 2 to 3 inches below the wound.
-Feel the victim’s pulse below the constricting bands to keep ahead of the swelling
-Use a sterile knife blade to make an incision about 1/2 inch long and 1/4 inch deep lengthwise over each fang mark.
-Apply suction cups to help remove injected venom.
104.21 Describe the first aid treatment for fractures.
-Do not move the victim until the injured part has been splinted
-Treat for shock
-straightened Limb so that splints can be applied.
104.22 Describe how to reinforce a compress dressing.
Battle dressings may be reinforced by applying additional sterile dressings over the battle dressing and covering the entire dressing with an elastic bandage
104104.23 Explain the following methods for carrying a casualty:
a. Fireman’s carry
b. One-and-two-man supporting carry
c. One-and-two-man arms carry
d. One-and-two-man saddleback carry
e. Pack-strap carry
f. Back lift and carry
g. Pistol-belt carry
h. Neck drag
i. Four-hand (packsaddle) carry
j. Four-hand arms carry
A casualty may be transported by using one-man or two-man carries
The two-man carries should be used whenever possible, as they provide more comfort to the casualty, are less likely to aggravate the injury, and are less tiring to the carriers
The particular carry selected should be the one less likely to aggravate the casualty’s injury
104.24 State the four general rules that apply when using a stretcher.
-Use standard stretchers when available, but be ready to improvise safe alternatives.
-When possible, bring the stretcher to the casualty.
-Always fasten the victim securely to the stretcher.
-Always move the victim FEET FIRST so the rear bearer can watch for signs of breathing
difficulty.
104.25 Explain the importance of personal hygiene and cite examples.
Disease and sickness can spread rapidly and affect an entire battalion in a short period
-Using medicated powders and deodorants helps keep the skin dry
-Socks and underwear should be changed daily
-The importance of washing your hands at appropriate times can not be overemphasized
104.26 Explain three methods of purifying water in the field.
1) Boiling
2) Iodine tablets-1 to 2 tablets per canteen.-Place cap loosely and wait 5 minutes
-Shake canteen, allowing leakage to rinse the threads around the neck of the canteen
-Tighten the cap and wait an additional 20 minutes before using the water for any purpose
3) Calcium hypochlorite ampules: Fill the canteen with the clearest, cleanest water available, leaving an air space of at least 1 inch below the neck of the canteen Add one ampule of calcium hypochlorite to a canteen cup half full of water; stir with a clean stick until the powder has dissolved. Fill the canteen cap half full of the solution in the cup, and add it to the water in the canteen, place the cap on the canteen and shake it thoroughly, Loosen the cap slightly; invert the canteen to allow the treated water to leak onto the threads around the canteen neck, Tighten the cap and wait at least 30 minutes before using the water.

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