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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a species?
kind of living thing
What is the biological species concept?
(sexual) one or more populations whose members are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring, and members are reproductively isolated from other groups.
What is the definition based on for asexual species??
biochemical (DNA sequence) and morphologial differences. no solid rules
In asexual species, microevolution over time leads to...
macroevolution (speciation)
What is the evolutionary species concept?
a single line of descent/lineage that maintains its distinctive identity from other lineages. works for all species
What is classification based on? What are the two major approaches?
inferred evolutionary relationships between organisms; cladistics and traditional taxonomy
What is phylogeny?
an evolutionary tree, it explains evolutionary relationships among groups (what evolved from what, in what order, and when)
What is systematics?
the study and reconstruction of phylogenies (doesn't name organisms, helps classify them)
What is monophyletic?
groups of organisms that includes most recent common ancestor and ALL DESCENDANTS
What is paraphyletic?
groups of organisms that includes most recent ancestor BUT NOT all descendants
What is polyphyletic?
groups of organisms that doesn't include most recent common ancestor
What does cladistics group organisms by?
on the basis of unique shared characters inherited from common ancestor (or derived character)
What is a clade?
a group of organisms related by descent
What is synapomorphy?
a derived character that is unique to and thus represents a phylogeny
What is a cladogram?
a branching diagram based on cladistic analysis that represents a phylogeny.
What is a cladogram based on? Because of this, what must they have?
based on comparative analysis, must have an outgroup and ingroup.
What is an outgroup and ingroup of a cladogram?
outgroup: an organism that is different from all others in the cladogram. it is expected to have split with the other from a common ancestor before the ingroup split from each other
ingroup: "the rest"
What does parsimonious mean?
the one that requires the simplest explanation
What kind of group does naming based on cladograms only allow for?
monophyletic groups
What does traditional taxonomy do?
it weighs characters according to presumed biological or evolutionary significance.
What is considered in traditional taxonomy? What does this allow for?
line of descent, paraphyletic groups
What are 5 characters useful for classification?
1. morphology
2. nutrition mode
3. cell structure
4. chemistry
5. reproductive traits
The most widely accepted classification system today includes ____ domains and ____ kingdoms.
3 domains
6 kingdoms
What are prokaryotic organisms?
they don't have any internal membrane-bound organelles (no true cellular nucleus)
In the Domain Archaea, Kingdom Archaebacteria, how are organisms distinguished from other bacteria?
mainly by ribosomal RNA sequence and lack of peptidoglycan in their cell walls
In Domain Bacteria, Kingson Eubacteria, how are the organisms defined best?
prokaryotes that are not archaebacteria (ex - don't like extreme environments)
What are photosynthetic prokaryotes vital for?
putting energy into ecosystems
What are decomposer prokaryotes vital for?
recycling matter in ecosystems
Domain Eukarya has what kind of organisms in it? What/how many kingdoms is in it?
eukaryotes.
Kingdom Protista
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Animalia
Kingdom Protista has what kind of organisms in it? What are some examples?
single celled and simple multicellular organisms having nuclei.
ex - protozoa, algae, water molds and slime molds
In Kingdom Fungi, organisms have cell walls that contain what? Are most single celled? What are two examples?
cell walls contain chitin
most are MULTICELLULAR
molds and yeasts
In Kingdom Plantae, do the organisms have organs? What is in their cell walls? What process is known for this kingdom?
Yes
cellulose
photosynthesis (chlorophyll)
In Kingdom Animalia, do organisms eat other organisms? Do their cells have walls? Are they mostly motile?
yes
not really
yes
What are three key characteristics of eukaryotes?
1. evolution of eukaryotes involved endosymbiosis
2. true multicellularity
3.sexual reproduction by syngamy
What is endosymbiosis?
an incorporation of Eubacteria cells into eukaryotes as mitochondria and chloroplasts
What does true multicellularity mean?
a body formed of cells which are in contact and coordinate activities)
What is syngamy?
(fertilization) fusion of gametes to form a zygote, first diploid cell for a diploid organism
three things involved in eukaryotic sexual reproduction:
1. meiosis (reduction division)
2. gametes
3. syngamy
What happens in meiosis?
reduction division.
diploid (2N) cell produces one or more haploid (1N) cells.
chromosome number halved
What are gametes?
cells that must join to another cell before a new generation is produced
What are three major types of life cycles?
1. zygotic meiosis
2. gametic meiosis
3. alternation of generations with sporic meiosis
in zygotic meiosis, what happens? (to diploid zygote, haploid cells) Where/who is this found usually?
dilpoid zygote never does mitosis
mitosis only in haploid cells, making haploid individuals
protists
in gametic meiosis, what happens? (to zygote, making what?) What does meiosis produce? Who/what is this found in?
zygote goes thru mitosis, making diploid individuals
meiosis produces gametes that never undergo mitosis
found in most animals
What happens in alternation of generations with sporic meiosis? Where is this found?
1. zygote thru mitosis =diploids
2. (some) diploids thru meiosis = haploid spores (sporic meiosis)
3. mitosis in haploid spores= haploids
4. some spores --> gametes --> syngamy = diploid zygote
5. == two bodies in one life cycle (two instances of mitosis in one life cycle)
6. FOUND IN plants and some algae