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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
eyes show a general ...
state of health and nutritional status
what is 20/20 vision?
you can see at 20 feet what most people can see at 20 feet
what is 20/200 vision?
you can see at 20 feet what others can see at 200 feet. this is called low vision
the normal retina:
very defined vasculature, veins & ateries are clear
no white spots, not convaluded
macula is clear with clear ...
fluid
what does BCVA mean?
best corrected visual accuity of 20/70 to 20/200
concerning blindness, ___% of all blindness is preventable
50%
blindness comes from:
accident
injury
untreated glaucoma
___________ ___________ biggest risk race
african americans biggest risk for blindness
what is 20/400 vision?
20/400 is to see no light perception vision
legal blindness is ...
BCVA best corrected visual accuity < 20/200 in the better eye, or widest visual field is < 20 °
why are blacks at big risk for blindness?
b/c of hi HTN & DM causes
the etiology of blindness (the causes) are:
birth defects
infection
trauma
diabetic retinopathy
what else?
glaucoma
cataracts
retinal degeneration
symptioms of going blind are like diplopia. what is this?
double vision
pain in the eyes, floaters or flashes of light,
burning or itching
what else?
< peripheral vision
Halos
sense of pressure
change of apperance
seeing floats cells in eye exam
the eye assessment:
through history
interviews
central & peripheral vision w/ ADLs
what else
distance & near vision acurity, what makes it better
contrast sensitivity, glare, visual field & refraction
objective data
squinting
rubbing eyes
redness
color testing so what?
what?
how do you test sight w/ pt w/ Alzheimer's?
smile and wave from 20 feet and see if they respond
what them walk see what they do
hand them something from the side to see if they have peripheral vision
see if they can follow an object
don't shine light in their eye, check PERRLA by turning light on and off and see if they react. what else?
check the 6 visual fields
the management of eyesight include:
corrctive lenses
medication
surgery
what else
laser
magnification
aids and strategies
etc
Nursing care for patients with low vision/blindness. how do you talk to blind people?
normal tone, don't raise your voice.
to care for blind people we do:
orient to enviroment
keep objects in the same place
call by name & introduce self before. . .
touching them
Psycosocial issues include:
fear anxiety disoreintatin
depression
helplessness hopelessness
acceptance vision is a HUGE ...
loss so don't assume they have accepted it
what are some Nursing Dx concerning blindness?
fear
grief
coping
self care
social isolation
potential for injury
what is humor?
clear liquid inside the eye
produced by ciliary process & passes from posterier to anterior chamber & etc
what is vitreous humor?
a transparent semi solid in the posterior cavity b/t lens and retina
the ability to focus and refocus is called
accomodation
what are some subjective infor assessing eyes?
any change in vision
same stuff in the notes
if pt wore glasses, what would I ask?
how long you wore them
can you see well with them
i see they are tri focal
do you use the computer what kind of monitor do you have?
crt screens wear out your eyes
what do you do at work, weld?
the eye lids, what about them...red, swollen, bumps but this is subjective impression. are both eyes straight. pupils same size, what if the eyes bulge?
hyperthyroid issue
shape of the eyes,
cornea clear
arcus senilious is the ring around the iris. old people have a harding of the lenses. blue eyed people will all develop ...
cataracts if they work outside if they don't wear sunglasses. filter out the blue light, not off the rack sunglasses!
sunk in eyes
the pupils get smaller so less light gets to the eye
decreased tearing
when we test visual acuity, we use the
snelling chart 20/20
20 feet away you see what other people see 20 feet away
how do you assess color?
they use Hisahara charts to assess if your color blind
numbers in behind the colored dots
remember the anotomic view of the eye, scleara, etc.
******************************
study normal focus
what is low vision?
state of vision impairment that requires devices to see like glasses or contact lenses
Best Correct Visual Accuity (BCVA) of 20/70 to 20/200.this is a def of BCVA.
difficulty w/ peripheral vision... something like < 20 degrees at the ...
widest visual field
how do you rest your eyes (esp those who do close in work?)
look up and look far away
good eye hygene
protect your eyes somehow
wear googles OVER your glasses
7 eye danger siganls
persisitent red eyes
continous pain and / or forign body sensation
any visual disturbances
floating spots (B/P transients
one eye goes out and away crossed eyes
an eye constantly changing shuttering (a ear issue)
any growth on the eye
pupil irregularilties
crusting or tearing of eyes
***************************
def of blindness...
20/400 to no light perception
absolute = no light perception
why do blacks have a blindness issue
hypertension and diabetes
etiology of blindness
birth defects
infection
trauma
what else
diabetic retinopathy
glaucoma
cataracts
retinal degeneration
trauma
symptoms of eye problem
diplopia
pain
floaters
burning
etc
to assess:
through history like job, family history, genetic stuff,
talk about centeral & periferal vision
what else?
distance & near vision acuity
contrast sensitivity, glare, visual field & refraction
nursing care w/ the blind:
use normal tone when talking
orient to enviorment
keep objects in same place
call by name introduce self before touching
what else?
tell when leaving
psychsocial issues:
fear
anxiety
disorientation
what else
DEPRESSION
HELPNESS
HOPELESSNESS
ACEPTANCE
learn the flow of aqueous fluid. whts the diff b/t aquous fluid and vitous fluid?
one holds the shape of the eye and the other does somethng else
****************************
what is the angle of the eye? look at 58...know anatomy and physiology of the eye. Know the anatomy of the eye. first part of tape 2. production and drainage determine IOP.
what is normal IOP
10-21 mmHg

some will say 12-21 mmHg
but stick to 10-21
Glaucoma and the Tonometry
is maj cause for blindness in usa. no cures just controls
so our role as nurses is to
remind them to use their eyedrops.
diff types of Glaucoma:
open angle (eye looks normal by drainage is inadequate)
what else about open angle?
open angle is painless insidious onset gradual visual changes
what about closed angle?
anatomical anomalies that prevent or interfer w/ drainage
painful sudden visual changes
open angle again symptoms:
vision changes
freq change of glasses
IOP>21 mmHg
Assessment?
occular history
tonometry (measures OP
Ophthalmoscopy (inspect optic nerve)
Gonioscopy (examines filtration angle)
Perimetry (visual fields)
Mangament of optic nerve damage (once done can't correct)
how?
medication
laser surgery
filtering
drainage
meds for the eyes are:
Cholinergics (miotics)
you don't want to give anticholinergic meds b/c ...
it dilates the eyes you don't want this. close the angle.
so to drain the auquous.
Xalatan increases aquious outflow
Adrenergic agonist like Propine that reduces production of aqueous humor
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors like Trusopt what does this do?
reduce production of aqueous humor
in OTC eye meds watch for a perservative called Trimenothol or something. and wait _____ minutes before
using one eye drop and another
what is an alpha agenerist?
what???? agonist means helper
Eye drops nursing implications
pt teaching
Aseptic admin
timely admin
what else
wait 5 minutes b/f using eye drops
do meds on time
hi potential for med errors
closed angle Glaucoma:
remember Manatol increase IOP presure,
anyway, acute angle closure is a medical emergency why
pain, sweating, central vision
risk factors about cataracts:
aging
associated ocular conditions
toxic factors
nutritioal factors
physical factors
syustemic diseases & syndromes
statin drugs like Lipitor can cause catarats!!! so what?
your going to get catarats anyway
Symptoms of cataracts:
painless blurring
light scattering
decreased contrast
what else
sensitivity to glare
reduced light transmission
color shifts
yellow to brown color shifts
absorbs slslledjowefjo
diabetic retinopathy
disorder of the retinal capillaries
microaneursyms, hemorarrage, etc
diabetic retinopathy are what
small hemorrages in the eye like cotton wool spots or hemorraghes, neovascularization
what is retinal detachment?
like getting hit in the head?
retinal detachment. the retina gets lifted. like a curtin hanging down. like a shade or curtain hanging down. could have no pain. its from trauma.
MACULAR DEGENERATION
NEED A DIET HI IN CARROT SOMETHING. THE BLACK IN THE BACK OF YOUR EYE IS ...
PURE VITAMIN A
GREAT FOR VISION
CARROTIOIDS ARE LIKE VIT A
WET AND DRY MACULAR DEGENERATION. CAN BE TREATED W/ A LASER. 10% CAN BE TREATED W/ A LASER. CAUSED BY A LOSS OF SOMETHING IN THE RETINA. PEOPLE W/ MACULAR DEGENTERATION WILL NEED A ..
BRIGHT LIGHT TO READ
LIKE THE MAGNIFICATION ON ON THE EYEGLASS IS FOR PERIPHERAL VISION TO MAGNIFY PERIPHERAL VISION.
NO tX FOR DRY MACULARIZATON. THEY CAN USE THE AMSLER GRID ONCE THEY HAVE MACULAR DISEASE, HOW?
YOU LOOK AT THE CENTER DOT W/ ONE EYE COVERED. YOU ASSESS YOURSELF TO SEE IF ANYTHING IS WRONG. YOU USE THIS GRID TO ASSES YOUR VISION DAILY.
WHAT IS MYOPIA?
BLURRED DISTANCE VISION. THE KID THAT CAN'T SEE THE BLACKBOARD. ITS NEARSIGHTED EYE