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175 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
France
most powerful in Europe
Britain
Most powerful in world
Capitalism
individuals raise money and invest in order to make money
London Stock Exchange
first stock market
Lloyd's of London
first insurance company
East India Company
joint stock company, opened trades
Louis XIV
"Sun King", King of France, began absolutism, started many battles for territory
Jacques Bossuet
supported the king rules by divine right, ruled in Louis's court
Thomas Hobbes
wrote "Leviathan", human beings created govt. for security but give up freedom as well
Cardinal Richilieu
believed in absolutism, looked for France's best interest
Cardinal Mazarin
shared Richilieu's beliefs, Richilieu's successor
Versailles
site of Louis's palace
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
controlled Louis's finances, creates mercantalism
mercantalism
a country should be run as a business, export more than import
Louvois
Louis's military commander
Brandenburg
(Germany) protestant country, Berlin was the capitol
Prussia
country that included Brandenburg
Hohenzollern
family that ruled Prussia
Fredrick William
"Great Elector", creates Prussian army
tsar
Russian rulers, decendants of emporers
Ivan III
establishes Russia as largest country in the world
Ivan IV (the terrible)
slaughtered many, Russia's greatest church builder, establishes a reign of terror
boyars
Russian nobility
Romanovs
ruling family of Russia
Peter the Great
brings Russia into the western world, creates ports for trade "open windows", makes Russia European, left to tour the workings of other countries, executed all body guards, brings ideas from other cultures
Elizabeth
succeeds Peter as ruler of Russia
Dutch Republic
Netherlands, have no king
stadtholder
ruler of Dutch but not absolute
Stuarts
ruling family of England, Scottish
James I
king of Scotland and England, translates Bible
Parliament
representatives of House of Commons and Lords
Puritans
radical protestants, conflict with Stuarts
Charles I
causes English Civil War, executed for treason
Cavaliers
supporters of the king
Roundheads
puritans
Oliver Cromwell
Roundhead leader
New Model Army
created by Cromwell, wins English Civil War, creates basic training
Levellers
supported democracy
Rump Parliament
parliament left after puritans
Lord Protector
leader of england, unofficial king
Restoration
england decides to restore monarchy
Charles II
next king in england but not absolute monarch
James II
duke of York, Catholic, king after Charles
Whigs
political party
Tories
another political party
William and Mary
daughter of James, king/queen of england after revolution
Anne
daughter of James, queen of england after william and mary die
Bloody Assizes
series of trials for rebellion against James
Judge Jeffreys
judge over trials, convicted everyone
Glorious Revolution
"bloodless", overthrows James for William and Mary, ended absolute monarchy
English Bill of Rights
series of statements establishing citizens rights
Act of Settlement
creates monarchy lineage
George I
elector of Hanover, German, King of England after Anne
Hanover
Germanic state, home of George I
cabinet system
heads of the department
Prime Minister
head of the cabinet, elected by parliament
Robert Walpole
first prime minister
Act of Union
unites scotland and england
Great Britain
country of scotland and england combined
George III
king of england, did not want absolute monarchy, king during american revolution
George Greenville
prime minister under George III, puppet
Great Northern War
began by Peter the Great between Russia and Sweden
Charles XII
ruler of Sweden
Poltava
city where Sweden is defeated by Russia
St. Petersburg
built during the war, became capitol of russia
William of Orange
leader of the Netherlands, marries Mary (daughter of James)
League of Augsburg
league against Louis XIV not including england
War of the League of Augsburg
Louis XIV against most of western europe, ends in a draw
Charles II (the Sufferer)
Habsburg, sick with hemophilia, king of Spain
(War of) Spanish Succession
dispute over spanish ruling lineage (France vs. England and Spain)
John Churchill
"Duke of Marlborough", defeated French with english army
Treaty of Ultrech
ends war and France loses
Acadia
area in Canada taken from french by english after war, cajuns
Frederick the Great
ruler of Prussia
Maria Theresa
Woman ruler of Austria
Austrian Succession
Frederick vs. Maria, ends in a draw, France helps Frederick
Three Furies
Theresa (Austria), Elizabeth (Russia), and Mme. Pompadour (mistress of French king)
Seven Years War
(French and Indian War), Frederick and England vs. the Furies
Treaty of Paris
English obtains canada from france
Scientific Revolution
scientific movement
Nicolas Copernicus
Polish astronomer, argued planets revolve around the sun
Ptolmeic System
earth was center of universe
Concerning the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies
book written by Copernicus published after his death
Tycho Brahe
astronomer from Denmark
Johannes Kepler
Braches successor, astronomer, discovers oval orbit
Galileo Galilei
uses the telescope for discoveries, discovers jupiter's moons, convicted for heracy but arrested instead of burned
Rene Descartes
derives new ways of thinking/reasoning
deductive
comprise by Descartes, general to practical, discover the truth then discover other facts
Francis Bacon
follows Descarte's ideas
inductive
comprised by Bacon, practical to general, gather facts for a higher truth
Isaac Newton
wrote "Principia", discovers principles of gravity and laws of motion
Discourse on Method
book written by Descartes
Novum Organum
book written by Bacon
Robert Boyle
seperated elements from compounds
Antoine Lavoisier
concluded matter can never be created or destroyed
A. Van Leuwenhock
used microscope for discoveries
William Harvey
physician, discovered capillary system
Enlightenment
discoveries in era/philosophy
John Locke
philosopher, concludes people have certain rights and govt. should be used to protect these rights
philisophes
critique the world and created theories, in France
Voltaire
writer, satirist (points out the mistakes of govt.)
Candide
play written by Voltaire
Montesquieu
French noble, inspired by Voltaire
Persian Letters
written by Montesquieu, written as a foreigner to question the govt.
Spirit of the Laws
written by Montesqueiu, suggests monarchy should be divided, supported democracy
Denis Diderot
creates "encyclopedia" to introduce govt. ideas
J.J. Rousseau
argues strong govt. increases problems
Social Contract
book by Rousseau, suggests to give people the most freedom possible
Deism
believed in God as creator but that he doesn't intervine
Pietism
believed that religion had conformed, tried to reintroduce emotion in worship
John Wesley
created Methodism but remained anglocan (english church), preached in the open
Methodism
form of pietism
Adam Smith
published "Wealth of Nations", economy should be rated on goods rather than money
laissez-faire
govt. shouldn't regulate economy
Immanuel Kant
wrote "Critique of Pure Reason"
Enlightened Despots
absolute rulers use power to improve citizens lives
Frederick the Great
establishes religious tolleration, uses power to improve govt and life in Prussia
Catherine the Great
German ruler of Russia by marrying Peter III (son of Elizabeth), gives Russia a taste of freedom
Baroque
style of art created by Rubens (dark, busy, eventful), also shown by Rembrant
Roccoco
style of painting (bright, outdoors)
J.S. Bach
German music composer
"Toccata and Figure in D Minor"
Dracula song by Bach
counterpoint
created by Bach, two or three melodies weaved into one
G. Handel
music composer, created oratorio
"Messiah"
oratorio song by Handel
oratorio
dramatic choral form
J. Hydn
Austrian music composer
symphony
orchestra, started by Hyden
W.A. Mozart
music composer, pianist at age 5
concerto
one instrument accompanied by an orchestra
J. Swift
english writer, wrote "Gulliver's Travels"
satire
writing form criticizing something with humor
D. Defoe
writes novels (possibly first), wrote "Robinson Crusoe"
Lexington
first American Revolution battle
Thomas Jefferson
Third president, wrote Declaration of Independance
James Madison
fourth president, wrote the Constitution
Louis XVI
marries Marie Antoinetter (Austrian), King of France during french revolution
bourgeoisie
french middle class peasants, later purchased land from the church
gabelle
forced purchase of salt
hunting privileges
nobility could hunt wherever they wanted, destroyed many peasant fields
Estates General
met in May of 1789 to create new taxes due to the need of money
cashier
petitions of grievance, suggestions
National Assembly
party gathering to vote
Tennis Court Oath
oath people would not leave until France would have a Constitution or die trying
Bastille
July 14, 1789 National Bastille day, mob stromed Bastille and freed prisoners after executing guards
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
France's declaration of independance
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
made church a govt. agency to gain land and sell it
Constitution of 1791
didn't abolish monarchy but limited it to where Limited Assembly had the final say
Legislative Assembly
final authority on laws
Gerondists
french revolutionist, wanted financial equality and abolishment of monarchy
Jacobins
french revolutionist, got name from monestary gathered at, radical group that had Louis XVI executed
guillotine
machine used to behead, symbol of french revolution
Danton
Jacobin spokesman/leader, beheaded by Robespierre
Marat
Jacobin leader/newspaper publisher, assassinated
Robespierre
Jacobin leader, "The Incorruptable", believed all opposition should die, attempted to abolish religion for the creation of a new one
Republic of Virtue
created by Robespierre, believed in virtue or death
National Convention
becomes French govt. after being called to create Constitution
Reign of Terror
guillotine becomes entertainment
Thermodorian Reaction
assembly that beheads Robespierre and stops the Reign of Terror
Directory
created by National Convention, "directors" control the govt.
Napolean Bonaparte
born in Corsica, French military leader, effectively uses army and artillery
Horatio Nelson
english naval genious, destroys french fleet, blind in one eye, Napolean's nemasis
First Consul
type of govt. after overthrow of Directory, Napolean became "First Consul"
Concordat
agreement with Pope, restores Catholic church and lets bourgeoisies keep land
Code Napolean
set of laws, louisiana immitates
Trafalgar
british naval victory, nelson is killed, monument is built
Famous Four
Ulm (Austria), Austerlitz (Russia, Austria), Jena (Prussia), Friedland (Russia... series of battles won by napolean to control europe
Continental System
direct/indirect control of europe
Alexander I
czar of russia, leads napolean deep into russia
Duke of Wellington
British commander sent to Spain, only person to win against napolean one on one
Battle of the Nations
Brittish, Prussia, Russia, and Austria fight off Napolean
Elba
island napolean is banished to
Congress of Vienna
restores french monarchy, conference to settle disputes after napoleans banishment
Waterloo
final battle of napolean won by brittain
St. Helena
island napolean was banished to and died