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72 Cards in this Set

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Hep's that cause chronic infection
B, C, D
Only DNA Hep virus
HBV (Hepadnavirus)
Hep's spread via Fecal/Oral
A and E
HAV is classified as this virus
Enterovirus 72
HAV will pass through the __1__ and spread to the Liver
GI mucosa
Incubation for HAV
25 days
HAV vaccine type
killed virus

(RIP-A)
2 diagnostic tests for HAV
1. elevated liver enzymes
2. acute hepatitis with IgM
Most common cause of Acute Hepatitis
HBV
Most common cause of Chronic Hepatitis
HCV
Primary cause of damage in Hepatitis
Host Immune response -> CTL
Trasmission of HBV
Percutaneous

Sex
Incubation for HBV
2-6 months
Reservoir for HBV
Man
HBV infection can go 3 possible disease routes
1. acute hep with resolution and lifelong immunity
2. Fulminant Hep -> death
3. chronic Hep
Can HBV be cultured?
NOPE
Markers that stay elevated in Chronic HBV infection
1. ALT
2. HBV DNA
3. HBeAg
4. Anti-HBcAg
5. HBsAg
Histology of Chronic Persistent Hepatitis
Inflammatory NODULE in Portal Triad
Histology of Chronic Active Hepatitis
Extensive Inflammatory cells and loss of Hepatic Lobular Architecture

Degeneration of Hepatocytes
Histology of Chronic Hepatitis with Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular nodules and dense fibrous septa
Most important predictor of the course of chronic hepatitis
Liver biopsy
HDV is associated exclusively with ________
HBV infection
Type of infection that increase HDV infection
Superinfection: HBV first and then HDV
HCV is referred to as this
Posttransfusion non A, non B
# of HCV genotyes and most common one
6

Type 1
Diagnosis of HCV
Serology

PCR
Serology markers always present in Chronic HCV infection
1. ALT, bilirubin
2. HCV RNA
3. Anti-HCV
% that have only acute HCV infection
30-50
% that have Chronic HCV
% that get Cirrhosis
% that develop HCC
50-70

20-35

2-5
HEV incubation period
3-6 weeks
Hightened HEV mortality rate in this group of people
Pregnant women

*E-xpecting mothers
>20%
Transmittance of HEV
fecal-oral
Primary infection of HIV has these symptoms
Rash
Lymphadenopathy
Aseptic Meningitis
Diagnosis of HIV is usually made by recurrent infections such as... (2)
Thrush

Herpes Zoster (shingles)
Explain Diagnosis of HIV
HIV antibody test then Western Blot to confirm
Histology of HIV encephalopathy
-MNGC's
-Microglial nodules
HTLV-1 disease
Adult T-cell Leukemia
Diagnosis of HTLV-1
Serology
Poliomyelitis is due to infection of the __1__ of the spinal cord or brain stem
Motor Neurons
Polio was a serious problem during this time
1940's and 1950's
Poliovirus can progress to these 3 things
1. poliomyelitis
2. Meningitis
3. Encephalitis
Histology of Poliomyelitis
1. destruction of neurons
2. INFLAMMATORY infiltrate
3. microglial nodules
4. perivascular cuffing
Diagnosis of Coxsackie Aseptic Meningitis
PCR of CSF
Pathology of Coxsackie viruses
Infect and LYSE host cells
Histology of Coxsackie Aseptic Meningitis
1. Vacuolated macrophages
2. high Lymphocytes
3. no/low PMN's
Enteroviruses cause a typical macular rash on these parts of body of infected child
Head and Trunk
Echoviruses are associated with these diseases
Meningitis
Paresis/Paralysis
Rash
______caused a pandemic in 1955-1960 that resembled polio outbreak
Echovirus 9
Causes Aseptic Meningitis with HERPANGINA and vesicles on hands and feet
Enterovirus 71
Hand, foot and mouth disease agents
Coxsackie A and B
Herpangina agent
Coxsackie A

*Herpangin-A
HFMD:
-Age group: 1
-Time of year: 2
1. young adults
2. Spring/Summer
Host for Rabies
wide range of animals

*especially BATS
When the Rabies virus reaches the brainstem it ______ the neurons
destroys
Rabies results in these symptoms
Spasms of Throat (hydrophobia)
Irritability
Agitation
Seizures
Rabies Pathology:
Virus ascends to the CNS via the _____
peripheral nerves
Histological feature Rabies
Eosinophilic perinuclear NEGRI BODIES
JC virus is of this family
Papova (polyoma)
JC virus is associated with this disease
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
Describe PML
Rare, fatal, subacute DEMYELINATING disease of CNS
JC virus is of this family
Papova (polyoma)
JC virus is associated with this disease
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
Describe PML
Rare, fatal, subacute DEMYELINATING disease of CNS
Histology of PML
1. demyelinated foci
2. atypical ASTROCYTES and OLIGODENDROCYTES
3. Intranuclear inclusions
2 Arboviral diseases
1. Encephalitis
2. Hemorrhagic fevers
Arboviral Infection that can result in death or permanent neuro deficits
EEE
Arboviruses that cause Hemorrhagic Disease (6)
1. Hanta
2. Crimean-congo HF
3. Lassa
4. Marburg/Ebola
5. Dengue
6. Yellow
Dengue:
-# of serotypes: 1
-Vector: 2
-Endemic in: 3
-Incubation period: 4
1. 4
2. Aedes
3. caribbean, asia, c. ameri
4. 3-7 days
Clinical signs Dengue
fever
myalgia
headache
Eye pain
Bone and back pain
1st virus associated with mosquito transmission
yellow fever
Yellow fever:
-after exposure illness begins within __1__
-primary symptoms: __2__
-Hemorrhagic symptoms start with __3__ and __4__.
-Death is usually within __5__
-Organs most commonly affected: __6__
1. 3-6
2. sudden fever, rigors, heachache
3/4. facial edema, bleeding gums, black vomit
5. 6-7 days
6. Liver, spleen, kidney, heart
Liver Histology of Yellow Fever
Councilman bodies

Fatty Deposits